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The Chia Controversy

When one of my favorite researchers wrote on April 20 that “the potential adverse effects of long term, chronic chia seed consumption may outweigh the potential benefits,” I took notice. Loren Cordain, Ph.D., is a professor in Colorado State University’s department of health and exercise science. Dr. Cordain wrote one of the most intriguing books on nutrition, The Paleo Diet, which recommends that we avoid grains and dairy since our paleolithic ancestors weren’t able to eat those foods.

Dr. Cordain’s report in his April 10 newsletter is more detailed in his criticism of chia seeds. An excerpt is available online, but the guts of the chia seed report sells for $6.95 plus shipping and taxes.

My 2007 post here on chia seeds got lots of attention, including more comments — 112 to date — than any other. So I was concerned enough to contact the world’s leading researcher on chia seeds.

Wayne Coates, Ph.D., is professor emeritus in the office of arid lands studies at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Dr. Coates has researched chia seeds for three decades and wrote the definitive book on the subject, Chia: Rediscovering a Forgotten Crop of the Aztecs (The University of Arizona Press, 2005).

Dr. Coates purchased a copy of the chia seed report. He shared it and his comments with me.

“I do not want to get into a long discussion about this,” Dr. Coates writes, “but would like to make a few comments. In his article, Table 1 gives the nutrient profile for chia seeds. Interestingly he does not give the source of the data, and furthermore, he says it gives the ‘entire’ nutrient profile of chia seeds. In no way it is complete, and since the source is not identified, one can easily question its value as a reputable source.

“He talks about anti-nutrients in chia, yet he promotes flaxseed. The anti-nutrients in flaxseed are well-documented for both humans and animals. He criticizes the gel (which is soluble fiber) as possibly impairing fat absorption and the high fiber content as protein to be poorly absorbed. In some cases, there may be some negative effects, but the positive effects of consuming fiber in the diet in terms of bowel function and prevention of coronary heart disease are well-documented.

“He also does not like the fact that chia contains phytic acid. Phytic acid has been shown to have antioxidant, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic and other beneficial effects. So again, it is unclear why he states this is a negative aspect of chia.

“He also discusses the study by Nieman et al. and cites the author’s statement that inflammatory markers increased. That is well and good, but even he notes that ‘other confounding factors may have influenced the results.’ In another study, which the authors listed as a preliminary study, he cites the results and states that IgE levels increased dramatically. The issue here is that the results were not statistically significant, and if you look at the standard deviation of the chia seed treatment, it was almost as large as the mean. In other words, the study should not be cited as being relevant.

“In a follow up to his first article, he talks about a study in which people ‘refused to continue because of gastrointestinal side effects,’ yet he never discusses the reason for such an effect. I have always advised people of two issues they should be aware of when consuming chia. First, if you start eating this and have been on a low fiber diet, diarrhea is possible since fiber is frequently used to promote increased bowel movement, simply back off on the amount and let your body adjust. The second issue is if people consume a lot of chia, but do not drink sufficient fluids. Chia is very hydrophilic, meaning it will adsorb a lot of water — 7 to 9 times its weight. It only stands to reason that if you put a lot of chia in your stomach it will absorb the liquid in there and cramping could result.

“It is disappointing when someone cites articles that are not conclusive or utilizes part of studies to promote their own beliefs and biases. Until there are definitive studies that prove chia is unhealthy to consume, which I do not believe will ever be the case, I feel confident in saying there are no known negative or anti-nutritional issues when consuming chia.”

After digesting Dr. Coates’s rebuttal of Dr. Cordain’s attack on chia seeds, I agree with Dr. Coates that the proven benefits of chia seeds outweigh the possible negatives that Dr. Cordain talks about. I recommend chia seeds to all of us who have diabetes for several reasons, not of the least of which is its high anti-inflammatory omega-3 content. I am happy to continue heaping chia seeds on most everything that I eat, including eggs, salad, and meat.

Dr. Coates tells me that he is still doing research of chia seeds and now sells chia seeds at the azchia.com website. That’s where I will be buying my chia now.

Update July 11, 2010:

Here is Dr. Cordain’s rebuttal:

Hi David,

Good to hear from you and many thanks for your kind words about my work.

I stand by my statement that phytic acid impairs absorption of divalent ions in a dose dependent manner. This data is unassailable and has been recognized in the nutritional community for more than 50 years. Hence, much of the calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium which on paper appear to be present in chia seeds are not available for absorption in vivo. Consequently, chia seeds are not good sources of these nutrients in living humans. In a typical western diet in which nutrients come from a variety of foods, particularly animal foods, these nutritional shortcomings in chia seeds likely are of little consequence. However, if chia seeds are consumed as staple foods comprising a substantial percentage of the caloric intake, overall nutrition would suffer similar to other human populations in which seeds (cereal grains, legumes) comprise more than half of the daily energy (1).

I also stand by my previous statement:

A recent review of all human chia supplementation studies concluded: “There is limited evidence supporting the efficacy of Salvia hispanica for any indication; thus far, only two clinical studies have examined the effects of Salvia hispanica on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (including body weight). One study showed some effects on some CVD risk factors, while the other did not. Neither study showed any effects of Salvia hispanica on weight loss.”

Despite animal data showing certain positive health effects of chia seed consumption (which I listed in my paper), randomized controlled human trials have been unable to replicate these results. Consequently, until further clinical trials are conducted in humans, no good experimental data can support the notion that chia seed consumption has therapeutic value.

The preliminary data in both humans and animals suggesting pro-inflammatory and, pro-allergic effects with chronic high level chia seed consumption are problematic and should not be ignored. The study showing dramatic increases in IgE in animals was not statistically significant because the sample size was so small that it lacked statistical power to demonstrate a treatment effect. This is an experiment that could easily be replicated with an “n” of 10 to 20 animals. If Dr. Coates is so confident, “Until there are definitive studies that prove chia is unhealthy to consume, which I do not believe will ever be the case, . . .” perhaps he should replicate this experiment with a larger sample size.

I remember a similar circumstance a few years back when a number of well known acne researchers confidently stated that “diet had virtually nothing to do with acne.”

Research from our laboratory first proposed that diet was the primary environmental trigger of acne; further we outlined the mechanisms involved (3, 4). Our work was later confirmed in a number of recent randomized controlled trials (5, 6).

Finally, in humans ALA by itself has little or no anti-inflammatory effects. It is the hepatic conversion of ALA to the long chain omega 3 fatty acids (20:5n3 and 22:6n3) which are anti-inflammatory. Because less than 5 % of ALA is converted to 20:5n3 and less than 0.5 % is converted to 22:6n3 (7), a better strategy than “to continue heaping chia seeds on most everything that I eat, including eggs, salad, and meat“, would be to eat 100 grams of salmon every other day.


1. Cordain L. Cereal grains: humanity’s double edged sword. World Rev Nutr Diet 1999; 84:19-73

2. Ulbricht C, Chao W, Nummy K, Rusie E, Tanguay-Colucci S, Iannuzzi CM, Plammoottil JB, Varghese M, Weissner W. Chia (Salvia hispanica): a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2009 Sep;4(3):168-74.

3. Cordain, L. Implications for the role of diet in acne. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2005;24:84-91.

4. Cordain L, Lindeberg S, Hurtado M, Hill K, Eaton SB, Brand-Miller J. Acne vulgaris: A disease of western civilization. Arch Dermatol 2002; 138:1584-90

5. Smith RN, Mann NJ, Braue A, Mäkeläinen H, Varigos GA. A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):107-15.

6. Smith RN, Mann NJ, Braue A, Mäkeläinen H, Varigos GA. The effect of a high-protein, low glycemic-load diet versus a conventional, high glycemic-load diet on biochemical parameters associated with acne vulgaris: a randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2):247-56

7. Plourde M, Cunnane SC. Extremely limited synthesis of long chain polyunsaturates in adults: implications for their dietary essentiality and use as supplements. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007 Aug;32(4):619-34.

Second Update from Dr. Cordain, July 10:

Hi David,

Thanks! I noticed as I read through my rebuttal that I forgot to put reference (2) in the text. It should follow directly after the long quote starting with ” A recent review…”

I have also attached the abstract by Dr. Coates and colleagues showing the large increase in IgE in rats fed a high chia seed diet. I realize that you are not a research scientist, but I can tell you that the design and subsequent interpretation of this experiment is just bad science. For starters, the researchers did not report alpha,so it is unclear what value of “p” (i.e. .05, .01, .001) was used to reject the hypothesis that T3 IgE values were not different from either T2 or T1. Additionally, the terminology they used for the statistical comparisons either reflect an error in the analysis or statistical naivete. Although an ANOVA may have been employed, the small sample sizes (n=6) for each of the three groups, more correctly required a non-parametric test (say the Krusal Wallis Test), because the distribution of their sample is non-normal. Further, there is no such thing as a “ANOVA t test”. There is an ANOVA and there are two types of t-tests (paired and unpaired). If indeed unpaired t tests were employed forpost-hoc analyses, it would have been an incorrect use of the statistic, as t – tests artificially inflate alpha.

But the bigger issue is the small sample size (n=6). In science, before we conduct an experiment, we typically do a statistical test called a “Power Analysis” to determine the sample size (n) needed to achieve significance at the given alpha. This test can easily be calculated if the mean and standard deviations are reported, as they are in this abstract. Based on these numbers, it is patently apparent that the sample size (n=6) used in this study would have been incapable of detecting a treatment effect. Hence, the conclusions reached in this study are invalid and the data trends actually point completely in the opposite direction — that consumption of large amounts of chia seeds are strongly associated with a gut mediated allergenic response. I challenge Dr. Coats to replicate this experiment, using an n=20. I also suspect that the thymus data would also become statistically significant.



Update July 12, 2010:

Dr. Coates has now responded to the rebuttal by Dr. Cordain:


His statement is so general. He never talks about the amount of phytic acid that does this. Does he even know how much of this there is in chia? What other factors mitigate such a response, increase, it etc. and again phytic acid has been proven to have positive effects.

He says “Consequently, chia seeds are not good sources of these nutrients in living humans” Does that mean they are for “dead” humans 😉

He talks about cerial grains and legumes. Chia is neither so what point is he trying to make?

To me it is clear he has a one track mind and no specific data to back up his statements, at least he does not quote any.


This article is based on an earlier version of my article published by HealthCentral.

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  • Suzanne Stoeckle at

    Yes – if you are diabetic it is already difficult – you need to listen to your own body – that is the best – Suzanne

  • Pone at

    Suzanne, do you have a blog?

  • Pone at

    Suzanne, I have more or less concluded that all grains have anti nutrients in them, even in cooked form. I think even Quinoa has issues in this regard.

    I actually ended up taking out ALL starches in my diet, per the SCD diet. No wheat, no corn, no rice, no potato, and no grains like quinoa. I get sugar from fruits like blueberries that contain monosaccharides glucose and fructose and no combined forms sucrose and no complex carbs. I can tolerate honey too.

    What I discovered is that if you take limited amounts of simple carbs like that you get a spike in blood sugar in 45 minutes, but it quickly reverses and stays low. All starches – with me anyway – have the effect of raising glucose for 4 to 6 hours. It’s a radically different glucose response curve.

    I eat a ton of nonstarchy veggies for nutrition and this doesn’t affect glucose.

    The single biggest impact I have been able to make on my blood sugars is to implement a daily 16 hour fast. I eat three meals in the narrow eight hour feeding window. The induced period of short starvation wipes out your glycogen in liver and normalizes insulin better than any other method. Further, some studies argue that the brief fast induces autophagy and the body starts to scavenge bacteria and viruses hidden inside the cells.

  • Suzanne Stoeckle at

    Hi David
    thanks for the feed back
    Yes – but Quinoa is only eaten soaked, cooked or sprouted – not raw – (there is no evidence to my knowledge of indigenous peoples eating quinoa raw …)
    My understanding is that the unique combination of the high oil content and high fiber in combination is part of the problem with raw Chia – it forms a mucilage in the gut that can prevent absorption and cause inflammation in some people – sprouting Chia – to me is the answer – raw and transformed by nature – nature knows how to process foods – with no damage and the result is – greatly improved – sprouting or fermenting is how we need to make our foods more easily digested and nutritionally rich !! 🙂 Suzanne

  • Suzanne Stoeckle at

    I do not eat Chia seeds – however I am a researcher of natural nutrient dense foods and a product formulator as well trained as a nutritionist. I have done a great deal of research as per seeds and legumes and the way indigenous peoples prepared them. As well I had terminal cancer over 22 years ago and recovered. I just want to contribute 2 points –
    Number 1. – When I was sick (I went on the Gerson Therapy – all natural food therapy) – I was not allowed to eat any seeds, nuts, or legumes as they are dormant foods and contain anti- nutrients and enzyme inhibitors as these keep pests away from foods and allow for a dormant period for the seed to regain its strength to reproduce. In humans they can interfere digestion , cause inflammation, irritate the gut wall, inter fear with digestion and elimination – all of which are required for recovery from illness and ongoing health. These must be removed – cooking or soaking and sprouting will do this ….
    Number 2. there is a clinical study that shows that the amino acids (Chia has a good amino acid profile and balance ) only have a bio-availability of 20% – that says something …. so my suggestion is – when it comes to a question of foods (as there are so many wonderful foods) when in doubt – do not eat it … 🙂 a great alternative to Chia is Quinoa – you can even pop it and make it crunchy …!!Quinoa can not be eaten raw either but it a complete balanced food – minerals , vitamins, completely digestable protein, good fats Omega, (not as much as Chia for sure) and full of antioxidants required by diabetics…there are preliminary studies on quinoa – on rats and people – quinoa actually reversed damage done by diabetes, lowered blood pressure, reduced Bad cholesterol and even helped with weight management. But do not eat grains raw …. 🙂 soak, sprout or cook. For diabetes eat – green vegetables 50% of your food ( including avocados) , small amounts of potatoes with skins on – 30% protein (organic meats only, cooked or sprouted legumes, seeds and nuts), 20% – regular small amounts of low sugar fruits like berries and green apples – sacha inchi oil (high in Omega 3) , coconut oil, avocado oil – you will see great results – maybe even a cure! …. I hope this is helpful – Suzanne 🙂

    • David Mendosa at

      Thank you, Suzanne. I agree that we shouldn’t eat a lot of seeds, nuts, or legumes. But when people eat quinoa, we tend to eat a lot more of it than when we eat seeds and nuts. Quinoa, of course, is a seed too!

  • blub at

    Phytic acid is a problem when its consumed in excess from grains, nuts etc which is bountiful in western diets. Anti-nutrients prevent mineral absorption which contribute to tooth decay/cavities. That’s my understanding..

  • David Clark at

    Phytic acid’s anticancer properties can be obtained by consuming IP-6 on an empty stomach, which prevents any binding with minerals or vitamins. Regarding the controversy, for me, I do not want to consume anything that raises inflammatory markers in the blood, or anything that can possibly effect the bowel with leaky gut syndrome. I have been eating a tablespoon/day for the last few months and my allergies have been worse, maybe the 118% increase in IG-E levels have something to do with that. I am glad I ran across Cordain’s article, because now I am going to quit the chia seeds and see how I feel, and if I feel better, the jury is in for me!

  • Mary at

    I have been adding 1 tablespoon of chia seeds to my smoothie every morning for about 2 years.
    My recent blood test showed a large drop in vitamin B12. 2 years ago it was perfect so I’m wondering if chia seeds have caused this.

    Also how can you throw away the water chia seeds are soaked in when the seeds absorb the lot.

    • David Mendosa at

      I’ve never heard that chia seeds have any effect on our B12 level, Mary. But metformin, the most common medicine for diabetes sure does. Do you take it?

      Don’t know about soaking chia seeds; always eat them without soaking.

  • Dana at

    I think I will go with Dr. Cordain’s opinions over Dr. Coates’s. I don’t agree with EVERYTHING Cordain ever says, but Coates comes off as a twelve-year-old with a persistent snark problem. Not helpful.

    Yes, I’ve heard the claims that phytates can prevent cancer and provide all sorts of other purported health benefits. It’s interesting, then, that people eating diets high in phytate tend to get MORE cancer and heart disease and diabetes and all that other fun stuff.

    If you’re going to eat chia, don’t make it a staple. I’ve seen people use it as a thickener in certain types of recipes but it’s in the context of a varied diet high in plant and animal bodies and low in seeds. If all you ever consume are chia smoothies, good luck with that.

  • Sam at

    I have been taking chia sees for about two years and all of a sudden my hair started to fall out. I have now stopped taking the chia seed and was wondering if anyone else experienced hair loss.

  • cate at

    My last dental exam x-rays showed extraordinary loss of bone where my upper teeth are! The only thing I hv done different since the exam before last, has been taking chia seeds with my liquids! I don’t know if anybody else has this problem, keeping in mind that the phytic acid in chia tends to prohibit the absorption of certain minerals per articles I read on chia.

  • David Mendosa at

    Dear Jimmy,

    In response to your message, Dr. Wayne Coates, who knows more about chia seeds than anyone, asked me to post an earlier comment that he made here:

    There are no Saponins in chia, nor other antinutrients that have been scientifically documented.



  • Jimmy at

    I know this question was already asked, but I couldn’t find an answer— how do you reduce the anti-nutrients present in chia seeds?
    numerous websites such as the website below say that chia seeds have anti-nutrients such as phytic acid:

  • Gina Green at

    Remember, the phytase negates the phytic acid in the chia seeds. Isn’t that what I read in the rebuttal? That there is enough phytase in chia to do that? I personally love chia and put it in my raw home made kefir to thicken it before I add the organic berries. My lifelong problems with constipation are gone.

  • Pone at

    I have taken many strains of Chia, and what I have observed is that several of the strains have completely different reactions with my gut. The black seed digests well and I have never had a symptom taking up to two tablespoons at a time. The white seed consistently causes me extreme distress and no amount of time or dose adjustment changes that.

    It seems to me that those people who are having inflammatory reactions will know it right away. If you eat any food and it doesn’t digest, stop eating that food. The high standard deviation in the study results to me indicate that some people digest Chia well, and some people don’t digest very well at all. In studying such populations, you cannot take an “average” and say anything meaningful. You should instead identify what percentage of people cannot digest the seed, and then you can make statements about that sub-population.

    • David Mendosa at

      Dear Pone,

      Very interesting. Thanks for your comment.


  • cate at

    Hi –
    Chia and Phytic Acid – All I know is from what I read. If there is no phytic acid, great but Dr. Coates said that phytic acid has its pros and cons. I presume the “con” to be phytic acid which (again, read it somewhere) that it prevents the absorption of certain minerals. Not trying to be argumentative here, just want to learn. I loooove chia seeds in my liquids, any liquid, even coffee but am consuming less now bcuz of the phytuic acid although I do soak them in lemon juice for at least 24 hours before consumption. Anything to allay my concerns wd be appreciated. They r really attractive suspended in water 😉 and if also good for health, then triple kudos to Chia . Tks.

  • suzanne at

    I can not accept research done by a doctor that sells the product he is researching ..this is a conflict of interest …. no objectivity …

  • cate at

    Hi – Will soaking chia seeds then discarding the water (seeds do sink to the bottom of container) rid them of the phytic acid? Or, is there something that can be added to neutralize the phytic acid in the chia? Any help on this greatlly appreciated. Tks.

    • David Mendosa at

      Dear Cate,

      Why do you think they have photic acid, anyway?



  • Rhonda at

    where is a good place to get chia seeds? I like the whole seeds and I am looking for a site with good price.

    • David Mendosa at

      Dear Rhonda,

      I buy all of my chia seeds from http://www.azchia.com/

      This is the company that Professor Wayne Coates started when he retired from the University of Arizona. He knows more about chia seeds than anyone and has a product that I know I can rely on.



  • Betty at

    After countless hours of research on the benefits of chia seeds, I decided to google adverse reactions of chia seeds. And I certainly found an answer to my problem. I’m on blood pressure med twice a day. I’ve been taking chia seeds for about 6 weeks now. I happened to check my blood pressure and found it to be 92/67. YIKES…I thought it was due to the 5K training I had started. No, I was wrong. I finally discovered from an article written by Sloan Kettering that got my attention. Chia seeds intensifies the effects of blood pressure medications so that the medication has much more effect on my blood pressure. I’ve been keeping daily records of my blood pressure and the time of consumption of chia seeds. I do NOT want to stop chia seeds. I have appointment with my doctor soon and will discuss this with him. Hopefully he’ll just reduce me down from 10 mg to 5 mg. We’ll see.

  • Lisa at

    I am hypoglycemic and my nutritionist suggested a couple of teaspoons of soaked (gelled) chia at midday and/or before exercise to help keep my blood sugar stabilized. I have been doing this for about 3 weeks now and have found a great improvement. It is my understanding from her that soaking them and drinking the gel alone or mixed with fruit puree before a workout is the best way to consume. Based on what I’m reading here it would seem that she is correct.

  • chris at

    Hi. My husband has recently started consuming chia, and he has been encouraging me to try it. I tend to avoid supplements, particularly because I am ignorant. Once my husband was taking deer antler spray; this freaked me out. Based on his recommendations, I usually avoid his supplements. However, chia sounds interesting, especially since I saw them at the health food store…they seem harmless. I don’t understand the phytic acid info. Could someone explain it in simple terms? I probably wouldn’t consume more than one table spoon a day…maybe even less. I am interested because my mom had bypass surgery at 54, and her sister followed at 52. They are all diabetics, too, and I want to steer clear of these health issues…My husband will be thrilled to know that I am contemplating taking his advice as he will feel “right!”

  • Mario Quesada at

    I notice that Dr Cordain coment was very generic about any seed and grain. I agree with him there is phytic acid in chia seeds but I don’t understand why he doesn’t mention the amount of phytase, which is the enzyme that neutralizes the phytic acid, is found i those seeds. If there is little phytase like in oats, there is a problem, if there is a lot of phytase like in buckwheat a few minutes of soaking could be enough.
    I haven’t completed my research o that subject but I know that soaking, sprouting or/and fermenting will neutralize the antinutrient.
    I am quite sure the phytase content is enough.
    Do your research.

  • Dawn at

    I first heard about Chia from you several years ago! A lot of my friends are Mila hawkers and cause me great aggravation as they discount any other chia; as they claim their special process removes the seed from it’s shell and makes it so the body can now absorb the oils/nutrients. I can not find anywhere that clarifies if the shells are actually removed from the product or just separated and consequently all mixed in together. If indeed the product contains no shells, would that mean their product would address some of these concerns? Otherwise, on a side note, I wish someone would sue them for their exaggerated claims and ripping people off and slandering good ol’ regular chia:)

  • Perry at

    I had recently started looking into the phytic acid content of foods and it is of concern. Seeds also are among the foods that tend to be high in phytic acid. Phytic acid interferes with mineral absortion, in particular with calcium and zinc. Many traditional methods of food preparation reduce the phytic acid content of foods, soaking, sprouting, fermentation (as in sourdough bread) contribute to the reduction.
    It’s up to you whether you eat chia or not, if you do, it does not hurt to look at ways to minimaize or reduce the possible consequences of it’s phytic acid content.

  • Richard at

    I am fascinated by this discussion on chia seeds. I have consumed chia seeds for years and have never had any adverse effects. I think I’ll go with my ancestors belief and consumption of chia seeds over a talking head that has no foundation to stand.

  • Chris@Apple Roof Cleaning at

    OMG, Chia has been consumed for zillions of years, and now some scientist tells us it is no good. I drink 2 to 4 glasses of Chia Fresca a day, I am type 2 diabetic. It has helped me a lot.