It appears that you are currently using Ad Blocking software. What are the consequences? Click here to learn more.

Revised International Table of Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL) Values—2008

By David Mendosa


This is the definitive table for both the glycemic index and the glycemic load. I am able to reproduce it here courtesy of the author, Professor Jennie Brand-Miller of the University of Sydney. It is based on a table in different format but no more foods published December 2008 in Diabetes Care. However, only the abstract is free online there.

GI of 55 is low; GL of 10 is low.

This table includes the glycemic index and glycemic load of more than 2,480 individual food items. Not all of them, however, are available in the United States. They represent a true international effort of testing around the world.

The glycemic index (GI) is a numerical system of measuring how much of a rise in circulating blood sugar a carbohydrate triggers–the higher the number, the greater the blood sugar response. So a low GI food will cause a small rise, while a high GI food will trigger a dramatic spike. A list of carbohydrates with their glycemic values is shown below. A GI of 70 or more is high, a GI of 56 to 69 inclusive is medium, and a GI of 55 or less is low.

The glycemic load (GL) is a relatively new way to assess the impact of carbohydrate consumption that takes the glycemic index into account, but gives a fuller picture than does glycemic index alone. A GI value tells you only how rapidly a particular carbohydrate turns into sugar. It doesn't tell you how much of that carbohydrate is in a serving of a particular food. You need to know both things to understand a food's effect on blood sugar. That is where glycemic load comes in. The carbohydrate in watermelon, for example, has a high GI. But there isn't a lot of it, so watermelon's glycemic load is relatively low. A GL of 20 or more is high, a GL of 11 to 19 inclusive is medium, and a GL of 10 or less is low.

Foods that have a low GL almost always have a low GI. Foods with an intermediate or high GL range from very low to very high GI.

Both GI and GL are listed here. The GI is of foods based on the glucose index–where glucose is set to equal 100. The other is the glycemic load, which is the glycemic index divided by 100 multiplied by its available carbohydrate content (i.e. carbohydrates minus fiber) in grams. (The "Serve size (g)" column is the serving size in grams for calculating the glycemic load; for simplicity of presentation I have left out an intermediate column that shows the available carbohydrates in the stated serving sizes.) Take, watermelon as an example of calculating glycemic load. Its glycemic index is pretty high, about 72. According to the calculations by the people at the University of Sydney's Human Nutrition Unit, in a serving of 120 grams it has 6 grams of available carbohydrate per serving, so its glycemic load is pretty low, 72/100*6=4.32, rounded to 4.


Glycemic Index & Glycemic Load Rating Chart

My previous glycemic index page, which this page supplants, was based on the 2002 table published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. That in turn supplanted my original glycemic lists page, which was based on the original 1995 publication of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

I know that some people would prefer the relative simplicity of a list of just the most common American foods. You can find such a list at http://www.mendosa.com/common_foods.htm.

If you are looking for a relatively simple description of the glycemic index, please see my article titled "The Glycemic Index" at http://www.mendosa.com/gidigest.htm.

Notice!

You can print out this file. But before printing, be sure to check if the last column is fully visible. On my computer I needed to change the margins in Internet Explorer (with file, page setup) from 0.75 inches to 0.25 inches. You may need to make it even wider by changing the print setup orientation from the normal portrait to landscape. Then, please first check if you've got it by printing just one page of the table.

This table may be freely utilized for personal use, but may not be copied to any other Web site or publication. Webmasters of other Web sites are, however, welcomed to link this Web page.

Before asking about the glycemic index or glycemic load, please refer to my main Glycemic Index page.


Table of glycemic index and load values

The average GI of 62 common foods derived from multiple studies by different laboratories

High-carbohydrate foodsGI
White wheat bread*75±2
Whole wheat/whole meal bread74±2
Speciality grain bread53±2
Unleavened wheat bread*70±5
Wheat roti62±3
Chapatti52±4
Corn tortilla46±4
White rice, boiled*73±4
Brown rice, boiled68±4
Barley28±2
Sweet corn52±5
Spaghetti, white49±2
Spaghetti, whole meal48±5
Rice noodles†53±7
Udon noodles55±7
Couscous†65±4
Breakfast Cereals
Cornflakes81±6
Wheat flake biscuits69±2
Porridge, rolled oats55±2
Instant oat porridge79±3
Rice porridge/congee78±9
Millet porridge67±5
Muesli57±2
Fruit and fruit products
Apple, raw†36±2
Orange, raw†43±3
Banana, raw†51±3
Pineapple, raw59±8
Mango, raw†51±5
Watermelon, raw76±4
Dates, raw42±4
Peaches, canned†43±5
Strawberry jam/jelly49±3
Apple juice41±2
Orange juice50±2
Vegetables
Potato, boiled78±4
Potato, instant mashed87±3
Potato, french fries63±5
Carrots, boiled39±4
Sweet potato, boiled63±6
Pumpkin, boiled64±7
Plantain/green banana55±6
Taro, boiled53±2
Vegetable soup48±5
Dairy products and alternatives
Milk, full fat39±3
Milk, skim37±4
Ice cream51±3
Yogurt, fruit41±2
Soy milk34±4
Rice milk86±7
Legumes
Chickpeas28±9
Kidney beans24±4
Lentils32±5
Soya beans16±1
Snack products
Chocolate40±3
Popcorn65±5
Potato crisps56±3
Soft drink/soda59±3
Rice crackers/crisps87±2
Sugars
Fructose15±4
Sucrose65±4
Glucose103±3
Honey61±3
 
Data are means. *Low-GI varities were also identified. †Average of all available data.
 

Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values determined in subjects with normal glucose tolerance: 2008

Food Number and Item GI2 Serve GL3
  (Glucose Size per
   = 100)g serve
 BAKERY PRODUCTS
 Cakes
1 Banana cake, made with sugar 47±8 60 14
2 Banana cake, made without sugar 55±10 60 12
3 Carrot cake, prepared with coconut flour (Philippines) 36 60 8
4 Chocolate cake made from packet mix 38±3 111 20
  with chocolate frosting (Betty Crocker,
  General Mills Inc., Minneapolis, USA)
5 Cupcake, strawberry-iced (Squiggles, 73±12 38 19
  Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Australia)
6 Lamingtons (sponge dipped in chocolate and 87±17 50 25
  coconut) (Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Australia)
7 Pound cake 0% (Bimbo S.A de C.V, Mexico) 38±5 60 9
8 Raspberry Coffee cake, President's Choice® 50±4 60 13
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
9 Vanilla cake, made from packet mix with 42±4 58 24
vanilla frosting (Betty Crocker, USA)
Desserts
10 Apple Berry crumble, President's Choice® 41±3 165 14
Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
11 Bavarian (mousse filling on biscuit base), Chocolate 31±5 75 6
  honeycomb, light (Sara Lee Bakery, Australia)
12 Danish, Apple & Peach, light (Sara Lee Bakery, 50±4 50 11
  Australia)
13 Doughnut, wheat dough, deep-fried (China) 75±7 50 15
 Muffins
14 Apple muffin, made with rolled oats and sugar 44±6 60 13
15 Apple muffin, made rolled oats and without sugar 48±10 60 9
16 Apple Blueberry muffin (Sara Lee Bakery, Australia) 49±4 60 12
17 Apple, oat, sultana muffin (Australia) 54±4 50 14
18 Apricot, coconut and honey muffin (Australia) 60±4 50 16
19 Banana, oat and honey muffin (Australia) 65±11 50 17
20 Blueberry muffin (Sara Lee Bakery, Australia) 50±3 60 15
21 Blueberry (Wild) 10-Grain muffin, President's Choice® 57±7 70 22
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
22 Chocolate butterscotch muffin (Australia) 53±5 50 15
23 Chocolate chip muffin (Sara Lee Bakery, Australia) 52±6 60 17
24 Cranberry & Orange Soy muffin, President's Choice® 48±6 70 14
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
25 Double chocolate muffin (Sara Lee Bakery, Australia) 46±4 60 16
26 Muffin, plain, made from wheat flour (Spain) 46±8 50 11
27 Muffin, reduced-fat, low-calorie, made from 37±3 50 9
  high-amylose corn starch and maltitol (Spain)
28 Raisin Bran Flax muffin, President's Choice® 52±3 70 17
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
29 Raspberry Pomegranate muffin, President's Choice® 58±7 70 19
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 Pancakes
30 Pancakes, homemade (Fiji) 66±9 80 17
31 Pancakes, prepared from shake mix 67±5 80 38
  (Green's General Foods, Glendenning, Australia)
32 Pancakes, prepared from wheat flour (China) 80±4 80 16
33 Pancakes, buckwheat, gluten-free, made from packet 102±11 80 23
  mix (Orgran Natural Foods, Carrum Downs, Australia)
34 Pancakes, gluten-free, made from packet mix 61±6 80 32
  (Freedom Foods, Cheltenham, Australia)
35 Pancakes, prepared with coconut flour (Philippines) 46 80 10
36 Pan de sal (sweet bread roll), containing coconut 61 80 22
  flour (Philippines)
37 Pastry, puff (PampasTM, Australia) 56±5 50 11
38 Pikelets, Golden brand (Tip Top Bakeries, 85±14 40 18
  Chatswood, Australia)
39 Scones, plain, made from packet mix 92±8 25 8
  (Defiance Milling Co, Australia)
 BEVERAGES
40 Aussie Bodies Start the Day UHT, Choc Banana 24±3 250 mL 4
  flavored drink (Aussie Bodies Pty Ltd, Australia)
41 Aussie Bodies Start the Day UHT, Chocolate 26±4 250 mL 4
  flavored drink (Aussie Bodies Pty Ltd, Australia)
42 Beer, Toohey's New (Tooheys Pty Limited, Australia)7 66±7 250 mL 5
43 Chocolate DaydreamTM shake, fructose (Revival 33±4 250 mL 6
  Soy®, Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc, USA)8
44 Chocolate DaydreamTM shake, sucralose (Revival 25±4 250 mL 1
  Soy®, Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc, USA)8
 Coca Cola®
45 Coca Cola®, soft drink (Coca Cola Amatil, Sydney, 53±7 250 mL 14
 Australia)
46 Coca Cola®, soft drink (Coca Cola Bottling 63 250 mL 16
  Company, Atlanta, USA)
47 Cordial, orange, reconstituted (Berri Ltd, 66±8 250 mL 13
  Berri, Australia)
48 Fanta®, orange soft drink 68±6 250 mL 23
  (Coca Cola Amatil, Australia)
49 Fruit punch (USA) 67 250 mL 19
50 Lemonade, Scheweppes®, lemon soft drink 54±5 250 mL 15
  (Cadbury Schweppes, Sydney, Australia)
51 Mars Active® Energy Drink, flavored milk 46±4 250 mL 15
  (M&M/Mars, USA)
52 Orange Delight Cocktail with pulp, 44±5 250 mL 7
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
53 RibenaTM blackcurrant fruit syrup, reconsituted 52±5 250 mL 17
  with water (GlaxoSmithKline Group, Australia)
 Rice milk drink
54 Rice milk drink, low-fat, Australia's Own NaturalTM 92±9 250 mL 29
  (So Natural Foods, Taren Point, Australia)
55 Vitasoy® rice milk, low-fat, calcium enriched 79±8 250 mL 17
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)8
56 Slim FastTM French Vanilla ready-to-drink shake 37±5 250 mL 10
  (Slim Fast Foods Company, Englewood, USA)
 Smoothie, made from milk and fruit
57 Smoothie, banana (Australia) 30±4 250 mL 8
58 Smoothie, banana and strawberry, V8 Splash® 44±3 250 mL 11
  (Campbell's Soup Company, Camden, USA)
59 Smoothie, mango (Australia) 32±4 250 mL 9
60 Smoothie, raspberry (Con Agra Inc, Omaha, USA) 33±9 250 mL 14
 mean of four foods 35±3 250 mL 11
 Smoothie, made from soy milk
61 Smoothie drink, soy, banana 30±3 250 mL 7
  (So Natural Foods, Australia)8
62 Smoothie drink, soy, chocolate hazelnut 34±3 250 mL 8
  (So Natural Foods, Australia)8
63 SoloTM, lemon squash, soft drink 58±5 250 mL 17
  (Cadbury Schweppes, Australia)8
64 Soy Beverage, Chocolate flavored, President's 40±5 250 mL 11
  Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
65 Soy Beverage, Original flavored, President's Choice® 15±4 250 mL 1
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
66 Soy Beverage, Vanilla flavored, President's Choice® 28±3 250 mL 4
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
67 Up & Go, cocoa malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal liquid 43±5 250 mL 11
  breakfast) (Sanitarium Health Foods, Australia)8
68 Up & Go, original malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal 46±5 250 mL 11
  liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium Health Foods, Australia)8
69 V8 Splash®, tropical blend fruit drink 47±4 250 mL 13
  (Campbell's Soup Company, USA)
70 Xpress, chocolate (soy bean, cereal and 39±2 250 mL 13
  legume extract drink with fructose)8
  (So Natural Foods, Australia)
71 V8® 100% vegetable juice 43±4 250 mL 4
  (Campbell's Soup Company, USA)
72 Yakult®, fermented milk drink with 46±6 65 mL 6
 Lactobacilus casei (Yakult, Dandenong, Australia)
73 Yakult® Light, fermented milk drink with 36±6 65 mL 3
 Lactobacilus casei (Yakult, Dandenong, Australia)
 Sports drinks
74 Gatorade® (Spring Valley Beverages Pty 78±13 250 mL 12
  Ltd, Cheltenham, Vic, Australia)
75 Isostar® (Novartis Consumer Health, 70±15 250 mL 13
  Nyon, Switzerland)
76 Sustagen Sport® (Mead Johnson, 43±9 250 mL 21
  Rydalmere, NSW, Australia)
77 Thorpedo® Advanced Hydration for Kids, all flavors 11±2 250 mL 4
  (Thorpedo Foods, Australia)
78 Thorpedo® Ultra Low GI Energy Water, all flavors 16±4 250 mL 2
  (Thorpedo Foods, Australia)
 Drinks made from drinking mix powders
79 Aussie Bodies Trim Protein Shake, Chocolate 39±4 250 mL 5
  flavored (Aussie Bodies Pty Ltd, Australia)
80 Aussie Bodies Trim Protein Shake, French Vanilla 41±3 250 mL 5
  flavored (Aussie Bodies Pty Ltd, Australia)
81 Build-UpTM nutrient-fortified drink, vanilla 41±4 250 mL 14
  with fiber, (Nestlé, Sydney, Australia)
82 CinchTM Café Latte weight management powder, 27±3 250 mL 8
  prepared with skim milk
  (Shaklee Corporation, Pleasanton, USA)
83 CinchTM Chocolate weight management powder, 16±3 250 mL 5
  prepared with skim milk
  (Shaklee Corporation, USA)
84 CinchTM Vanilla weight management powder, 22±3 250 mL 6
  prepared with skim milk (Shaklee Corporation, USA)
85 Complete Hot Chocolate mix made with 51±3 250 mL 12
  hot water (Nestlé, Australia)
86 Hi-Pro energy drink mix, vanilla, containing soy 36±3 250 mL 7
  protein and whey powder (Harrod foods, Sefton,
  Australia) mixed in reduced-fat (1.5%) milk
87 Malted milk powder in full-fat milk (Nestlé, Australia) 45±3 250 mL 12
 MiloTM (chocolate nutrient-fortified drink powder)
88 MiloTM (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in water 55±3 250 mL 9
89 MiloTM (Nestlé, Auckland, New Zealand) 52±5 250 mL 8
  dissolved in water
90 MiloTM (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in full-fat milk 35±2 250 mL 9
91 MiloTM (Nestlé, New Zealand) dissolved in full-fat milk 36±3 250 mL 9
92 MiloTM Breakfast Smoothie powder prepared 39±5 250 mL 13
  with skim milk (Nestlé, Australia)
93 NutrimealTM, meal replacement drink, Dutch Chocolate 26±3 250 mL 4
  (Usana, Salt Lake City, USA) (2000)
94 NutrimealTM, meal replacement drink, all flavors 20±2 250 mL 3
  (Usana Australia, Baulkham Hills, Australia) (2007)
95 Proform Hi-protein powder, neutral flavor, 45±3 250 mL 22
  prepared with skim milk
  (MGC Dairy Co Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia)
96 Proform Hi-protein powder, vanilla flavor, prepared 42±5 250 mL 21
  with skim milk (MGC Dairy Co Pty Ltd, Australia)
 QuikTM (sweet drink powder)
97 QuikTM, chocolate (Nestlé, Australia), made with water 53±5 250 4
98 QuikTM, chocolate (Nestlé, Australia), prepared with 41±4 250 5
  1.5% fat milk
99 QuikTM, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), prepared 64±8 250 5
  with in water
100 QuikTM, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), prepared 35±3 250 4
  with 1.5% fat milk
 
 BREADS
101 Bagel, white (USA)969 70 24
 Baguette
102 Traditional French baguette (prepared with wheat 57±9 30 10
  flour, water, salt and 20 g yeast) (France)
103 Whole Grain Baguette, President's Choice® Blue 73±6 30 9
  Menutm (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
104 French baguette with chocolate spread (France) 72±8 70 27
105 French baguette with butter and strawberry jam 62±7 70 26
  (France)
106 Pain au lait (Pasquier, France) 63±10 60 20
 Barley breads
 Coarse barley kernel bread, 80% kernels
107 80% scalded intact kernels (20% white wheat flour) 34 30 7
108 80% intact kernels (20% white wheat flour) 40 30 8
109 Barley kernel bread, 50% kibbled barley (Australia) 48 30 10
110 Sunflower and barley bread (Riga bakeries, 57±6 30 6
  Sydney, Australia)
111 Sunflower and barley bread (Vogel's, UK) 70±10 30 8
 Barley flour breads
112 Wholemeal barley flour (80%) bread 67 30 13
  (20% white wheat flour) (Sweden)
113 Wholemeal barley bread, flat, thin, soft (50% regular 50 30 7
  barley flour, 50% high-fiber barley flour) (Sweden)
114 Wholemeal barley bread, flat, thin, soft (20% regular 43 30 5
  barley flour, 80% high-fiber barley flour) (Sweden)
115 Barley flour bread, made from 50% wheat flour and 74±15 30 12
  50% coarse sieved barley flour (containing 4.2%
  total 1-3, 1-4 β-glucan of which 2.8% soluble) (Italy)
116 Barley flour bread, made from 80% wheat flour and 70±7 30 11
  20% water-extracted barley flour (containing 6.3%
  total 1-3, 1-4 β-glucan of which 5.7% soluble) (Italy)
117 Whole grain barley flour bread, made from 50% barley 85±14 30 15
  flour and 50% wheat flour (containing 2.4%
  total 1-3, 1-4 β-glucan of which 2.0% soluble) (Italy)
118 Barley bread, 70% high-amylose barley flour and 49 30 6
  30% white wheat flour, baked long-time at
  low tempertaure (Sweden)
119 Barley bread, 70% high-amylose barley flour & 30% 70 30 9
  white wheat flour, conventionally baked (Sweden)
 Wholemeal barley flour (80%) & white wheat flour
 (20%) breads - fermented or with added
 organic acids or salts (Sweden)
120 Wholemeal barley flour bread (used as reference food 70 30 14
  for the 5 breads below)9
121 Wholemeal barley flour bread with 53 30 10
  sourdough (lactic acid)9
122 Wholemeal barley flour bread with lactic acid966 30 12
123 Wholemeal barley flour bread with calcium lactate9 59 30 12
124 Wholemeal barley flour bread with sodium propionate9 65 30 13
125 Wholemeal barley flour bread with higher dose 57 30 11
  sodium propionate9
 Buckwheat bread
126 Buckwheat bread, 50% dehusked buckwheat 47 30 10
  groats and 50% white wheat flour (Sweden)
127 Buckwheat bread (China) 67±2 30 13
 Chickpea flour bread
128 Chickpea flour bread, made from Amethyst-type 55 30 7
  desi chickpeas (JK International Pty Ltd,
  Rocklea, Australia)
129 Chickpea flour bread, made from extruded 67 30 8
  chickpea flour (Australia)
130 Corn tortilla, made from white corn, Diego's brand 49±6 50 11
  (San Diego Tortilla Factory Pty Ltd, Andrews,
  QLD, Australia)
131 Bread, flax, made from flax meal & wheat flour (Canada)967 30 8
 Fruit breads
132 Bürgen® Fruit loaf (Tip Top Bakeries, 44±5 30 6
  Chatswood, Australia)
133 Bürgen® Fruit and Muesli bread 53±4 30 7
  (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)
134 Continental fruit loaf, wheat bread 47±6 30 7
  with dried fruit (Australia)
135 Fruit and cinnamon bread (Finest, UK) 71±11 30 11
136 Fruit and Spice Loaf, thick sliced 54±6 30 8
  (Buttercup bakeries, Moorebank, Australia)
137 Fruit loaf, sliced (UK) 57±6 30 9
138 HappinessTM (cinnamon, raisin, pecan bread) 63±5 30 9
  (Natural Ovens, Mannitowoc, USA)
139 Muesli bread, made from packet mix in 54±6 30 7
  bread making machine (Con Agra Inc., USA)
140 Whole-wheat bread with dried fruit (China) 47±2 30 7
 Gluten-free bread
141 Gluten-free multigrain bread (Country Life Bakery, 79±13 30 10
  Dandenong, Australia)
142 Gluten-free white bread (Country Life Bakery, Autralia) 40±5 30 3
143 Gluten-free buckwheat bread, made with buckwheat 72±5 30 8
  meal & rice flour
  (Naturis Organic Bread, NSW, Australia)
 Hamburger/Hot dog buns
144 100% Whole wheat Gigantico Burger Buns, 62±6 30 7
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
145 100% Whole wheat Gigantico Hot Dog Rolls, 62±6 30 7
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 Oat bread
146 Coarse oat kernel bread, 80% intact oat kernels 65 30 12
  and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden)
 Oat bran bread
147 50% oat bran (Australia) 44 30 8
148 45% oat bran and 50% wheat flour (Sweden) 50 30 9
149 Oatmeal batch bread (UK) 62±8 30 9
 Rice bread
150 Rice bread, low-amylose Calrose rice 72±9 30 8
  (Pav's Allergy Bakery, Ingleburn, Australia)
151 Rice bread, high-amylose Doongara rice 61±9 30 7
  (Pav's Allergy Bakery, Australia)
 Rye bread
152 Rye bread (50% rye flour + 50% wheat flour) (Turkey) 50 30 7
153 Wheat and rye bread (75% wheat flour + 40 30 6
  10% rye flour + 15% wheat bran) (Turkey)
 Rye kernel bread
154 Coarse rye kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 41 30 5
  20% white wheat flour (Sweden)
155 Whole-kernel rye bread, 60% whole rye kernels 57 30 6
  and 40% rye flour (Finland)11
156 Rye bread (80% rye flour + 20% oat β-glucan 66 30 6
  concentrate) (Finland)11
157 Rye bread, 69% whole-grain rye flour 78±10 30 11
  (Jalkiuunileipa, Oululainen Ltd, Lahti, Finland)
 Specialty rye breads
158 Blackbread, Riga (Berzin's Specialty Bakery, 76±14 30 10
  Sydney, Australia)
159 BürgenTM Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 55±12 30 6
160 BürgenTM Rye (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 51±3 30 5
161 Country Grain Organic Rye 53±4 30 5
  (Country Life Bakery, Australia)
162 Roggenbrot, Vogel's (Stevns & Co, Sydney, 59±5 30 8
  NSW, Australia)
163 Rye Hi-Soy with Linseed 55±4 30 5
  (Country Life Bakery, Australia)
164 Schinkenbrot, Riga (Berzin's Specialty Bakery, 86±15 30 12
  Sydney, Australia)
165 Sourdough rye (Australia) 48 30 6
 Wheat Breads
166 Coarse wheat kernel bread, 80% intact kernels 52 30 10
  and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden)
 Spelt wheat breads
167 White spelt wheat bread (Belgium) 65 30 10
168 White spelt wheat bread (Slovenia)12 74 30 17
169 Wholemeal spelt wheat bread (Slovenia)12 63 30 12
170 Scalded spelt wheat kernel bread (Slovenia)12 67 30 15
171 Spelt multigrain bread® (Pav's bakery, Australia) 54±10 30 7
 White wheat flour bread
172 White flour (UK) 59±11 30 8
173 White flour (Canada) 69±5 30 10
174 White flour, SunblestTM (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 70 30 10
175 White flour (Sainsbury's, UK) 70±10 30 10
176 White flour bread 71±3 30 10
177 White flour (Pepperidge Farm, Norwalk, CT, USA) 71±6 30 11
178 White flour (South Africa) 71±7 30 9
179 White flour (Italy) 72 30 11
180 White flour (Hovis, UK) 73±12 30 11
181 White flour (Nishin Shokuhin, Japan) 75 30 10
182 White flour (Vodova veka Penam, Olomouc, 75±10 30 13
  Czech Republic)
183 White flour (Hovis, UK) 75±12 30 11
184 White flour (Hovis Classic, British Bakeries Ltd, UK)9 87 30 11
185 White flour (China) 88±3 30 12
186 White flour (Italy) 89±12 30 18
187 White flour, homemade (UK)9 89 30 12
 mean of sixteen studies 75±2 30 11
 White wheat flour bread, toasted
188 White bread, toasted (Hovis, UK) 50±7 30 7
189 White bread, fresh, toasted (British Bakeries Ltd, UK)9 63 30 8
190 White bread, homemade, fresh, toasted (UK)9 66 30 9
 mean of three studies 60 30 8
 White wheat flour bread, frozen and defrosted9
191 White bread, frozen and defrosted 75 30 9
  (British Bakeries Ltd, UK)9
192 White bread, homemade, frozen and defrosted (UK) 62 30 8
 White wheat flour bread, frozen and defrosted,
  toasted
193 White wheat bread, frozen, defrosted and toasted9 64 30 8
  (British Bakeries Ltd, UK)
194 White bread, homemade, frozen, defrosted9 54 30 7
  and toasted (UK)
 WonderTM, enriched white bread (Interstate
  Brands Companies, Kansas City, USA)
195 WonderTM, enriched white bread 71±9 30 10
196 WonderTM, enriched white bread 72±4 30 10
197 WonderTM, enriched white bread 77±3 30 11
 mean of three studies 73 30 10
 White bread with enzyme inhibitors
198 White bread + acarbose (200 mg) (Mexico) 50 30 8
 White bread with insoluble fiber
199 White bread, enriched with 9 g lupin kernel fiber 74 30 7
  (viscous insoluble fiber) (Australasian Natural
  Ingredients Pty Ltd, Perth, Australia)
200 White bread with added wheatgerm and fiber (UK) 59±11 30 6
 White bread with soluble fiber
201 White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium) 65 30 11
  (Mexico)
202 White bread, enriched with 12 g Arabinoxylan fiber14 41 30 4
  (soluble fiber) (Australia)
203 White bread, enriched with 6 g Arabinoxylan fiber14 56 30 7
  (soluble fiber) (Australia)
 White bread enriched with Sunfibre (Cyamoposis
  tetragonolobus) (Indian cluster guar beans)
204 White bread with 3 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 63±4 30 10
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Yokaichi Mie, Japan)
205 White bread with 5 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 64±5 30 10
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Yokaichi Mie, Japan)
206 White bread with 10 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 68±5 30 11
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Yokaichi Mie, Japan)
207 White bread with 15 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 56±1 30 10
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Yokaichi Mie, Japan)
208 White bread with 5 g Sunfibre, viscosity 2 55±2 30 9
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Yokaichi Mie, Japan)
 White bread consumed with fiber drink
209 White bread consumed with 5 g Sunfibre (Taiyo 49±4 - -
  Kagaku Co, Ltd, Japan) dissolved in 250mL water
210 White bread consumed with 10 g Sunfibre (Taiyo 57±5 - -
  Kagaku Co, Ltd, Japan) dissolved in 250mL water
211 White bread consumed with 10 g insoluble dextrin 66±6 - -
  (Matsutani Chemical Industry Co Ltd, Japan)
  in 250 mL water
212 White bread consumed with 10 g inulin (Orafti, 67±6 - -
  Tienen, Belgium) in 250 mL water
 White bread with added ingredients
213 White bread (100% wheat flour) + 2% pectin 85 30 11
  (George Weston Foods Ltd, Australia)
214 White bread (100% wheat flour) + 5% fruit fiber 76 30 9
  (George Weston Foods Ltd, Australia)
215 White bread (80% wheat flour + 20% chickpea flour) 79 30 9
  (George Weston Foods Ltd, Australia)
216 White bread (90% wheat flour + 10% modified corn 78 30 10
  starch) (George Weston Foods Ltd, Australia)
217 White bread (90% wheat flour + 10% tapicoa starch) 77 30 10
  (George Weston Foods Ltd, Australia)
218 White bread (95% wheat flour + 5% oat bran) 74 30 10
  (George Weston Foods Ltd, Australia)
219 White bread, containing 2% guar gum 66 30 8
  (George Weston Foods Ltd, Australia)
220 White bread, containing 2% vinegar and 2.5% 79 30 9
  sourdough (Noble Rise Crunchy Toast, Australia)
221 White bread containing Eurylon® high-amylose 42 30 8
  maize starch (France)15
222 White bread eaten with powdered dried 48 30 7
  seaweed (Nori alga) (Spain)
223 White bread eaten with vinegar as vinaigrette 45 30 7
  (Sweden)
224 White bread eaten with 18 g white vinegar 63 30 9
  (6% acetic acid) (Sweden)
225 White bread eaten with 23 g white vinegar 73 30 11
  (6% acetic acid) (Sweden)
226 White bread eaten with 28 g white vinegar 54 30 8
  (6% acetic acid) (Sweden)
227 White and wholemeal bread (ratio 1:1), fermented by 54 30 6
  sourdough lactobacilli (pH 1.5) and fiber-enriched
  with oat fiber (Italy)
 White bread, with different proving times
 and bread volumes
228 White bread, prepared with a 10 min prove and a 38±4 30 5
  second 2 min proving (low loaf volume) (UK)
229 White bread, prepared with a 30 min prove and a 72±7 30 9
  second 12 min proving (moderate loaf volume) (UK)
230 White bread, prepared with a 60 min prove and a 86±9 30 11
  second 30 min proving (moderate loaf volume) (UK)
231 White bread, prepared with a 40 min prove, a second 100±7 30 13
  25 min proving and a third 50 min proving
  (large loaf volume) (UK)
 White resistant starch-enriched bread
232 Fiber WhiteTM (Nature's Fresh, 77±10 30 11
  Auckland, New Zealand)
233 WonderwhiteTM (Buttercup Bakeries, Australia) 80±8 30 11
 Wholemeal (whole wheat) wheat flour bread
234 Wholemeal flour (Hovis, UK) 68±9 30 7
235 Wholemeal flour (China) 69±3 30 9
236 Wholemeal flour (Sainsbury's, UK) 71±12 30 8
237 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 72±6 30 8
238 Wholemeal flour (Australia) 74 30 10
239 Wholemeal flour (Hovis, UK) 74±8 30 8
240 Wholemeal flour (South Africa) 75±9 30 9
241 Wholemeal flour (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 77±9 30 9
242 Wholemeal flour (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 78±16 30 9
243 Wholemeal flour (France) 85±27 30 13
 mean of ten studies 74± 2 30 9
 Wholemeal stoneground (whole wheat)
  wheat flour bread
244 Wholemeal bread, stoneground flour (Bill's Organic 59±8 30 7
  Bread, Cardiff, Australia)
245 Wholemeal flour, stoneground (Waitrose, UK) 66±13 30 8
 Specialty wheat breads
246 Bakers DelightTM Hi Fibre Lo GI white bread 52±7 30 8
  (Bakers Delight Holdings, Australia)
247 Bakers DelightTM Wholemeal Country Grain bread 53±9 30 6
  (Bakers Delight Holdings, Australia)
 BürgenTM Mixed Grain bread (Tip Top Bakeries,
  Chatswood, Australia)
248 BürgenTM Mixed Grain 34±4 30 4
249 BürgenTM Mixed Grain 45±12 30 5
250 BürgenTM Mixed Grain 52±4 30 5
 mean of three studies 44 30 5
251 BürgenTM Oat Bran & Honey Loaf with Barley 31±3 30 3
  (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) (1995)
252 BürgenTM Oatbran & Honey bread 49±4 30 5
  (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) (2002)
253 BürgenTM Pumpkin Seed bread, containing 6% 49±4 30 4
  pumpkin seeds (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)
254 Bürgen® Soy-Lin, kibbled soy (8%) and linseed (8%) 36±4 30 3
  loaf (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)
255 Bürgen® Wholmeal & Seeds 39±8 30 2
  (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)
256 Crusty malted wheat bread (Finest, UK) 52±8 30 7
257 English MuffinTM bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 77±7 30 11
258 English Muffin, Whole Grain Multigrain, 45±3 30 5
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
259 Golden HearthTM Organic Heavy Wholegrain bread 53±7 30 7
  (Gold Coast Bakeries, QLD, Australia)
260 Healthy ChoiceTM Hearty 7 Grain 55±6 30 8
  (Con Agra Inc., USA)
261 Healthy ChoiceTM Hearty 100% Whole Grain 62±6 30 9
  (Con Agra Inc., USA)
262 Helga'sTM Classic Seed Loaf (Quality Bakers, 68±9 30 9
  Sydney, Australia)
263 Helga'sTM Traditional Wholemeal bread 70±14 30 9
  (Quality Bakers, Australia)
264 Hunger FillerTM, whole grain bread 59±8 30 7
  (Natural Ovens, USA)
265 Malt loaf, organic (UK) 59±9 30 12
266 MolenbergTM (Goodman Fielder, Auckland, 75±10 30 11
  New Zealand)
267 Multigrain bread (Sainsbury's, UK) 80±10 30 8
268 Multigrain batch bread (UK) 62±8 30 9
269 9-Grain Multi-Grain (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 43±5 30 6
270 Multigrain Loaf, spelt wheat flour (Australia) 54±10 30 8
271 Multigrain (50% kibbled wheat grain) (Australia) 43 30 6
272 Multigrain loaf, containing coconut flour (Philippines) 60 30 7
273 Multiseed bread (UK) 54±4 30 7
274 Nutty NaturalTM, whole grain bread 59±7 30 7
  (Natural Ovens, USA)
275 PerformaxTM (Country Life Bakery, Australia) 38±3 30 5
276 Ploughman'sTM Wholegrain, original recipe 47 30 7
  (Quality Bakers, Australia)
277 Ploughman'sTM Wholemeal, smooth milled 64±10 30 9
  (Quality Bakers, Australia)
278 Seeded bread (UK) 49±7 30 6
279 Sourdough wheat bread (Australia) 54 30 8
280 Sourdough Vienna bread, Bakers DelightTM 66±6 30 10
  (Bakers Delight Holdings, Australia)
281 Soy & Linseed bread (made from packet mix cooked 50±6 30 5
  in bread maker) (Con Agra Inc., USA)
282 Stay TrimTM, whole grain bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 70±10 30 10
283 Tip TopTM EnerGI white bread 54 30 7
  (Tip Top Bakeries, George Weston Ltd, Australia)
284 Tip TopTM EnerGI white bread 58 30 7
  (Tip Top Bakeries, George Weston Ltd, Australia)
285 3 Grain Bread, sprouted grains (Stonemill Bread, 55±6 30 5
  Toronto, Canada)
286 Vogel's Honey & Oats (Stevns & Co, Sydney, Australia) 55±5 30 8
287 Vogel's Wonder White 'Low GI' white bread 54±3 30 6
  (Quality Bakers, Australia)
288 Vogel's Wonder White 'Low GI' white bread 59 30 7
  (Quality Bakers, Australia)
289 100% Whole GrainTM bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 51±11 30 7
290 White wheat flour flatbread (Sweden) 79 30 13
291 Wheat bread, Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) wheat, 71 30 8
  leavened with crushed whole grains (Denmark)
292 Wheat bread, Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) wheat, 65 30 8
  leavened with honey and salt (Denmark)
293 Wheat bread, Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) wheat, 67 30 8
  leavened with yeast (Denmark)
 Unleavened Breads
294 Lebanese bread, white (Seda Bakery, Sydney, Australia) 75±9 30 12
295 Pita bread, white, mini (UK) 68±5 30 10
296 Pita bread, wholemeal (UK) 56±13 30 8
 
 BREAKFAST CEREALS
 All-BranTM (high-fiber, extruded wheat bran cereal)
297 All-BranTM (Kellogg's, Pagewood, NSW, Australia)17 30 30 4
298 All-BranTM (Kellogg's, Battle Creek, MI, USA)11,14 38 30 8
299 All-BranTM (Kellogg's Inc., Canada) 51±5 30 12
300 All-BranTM (Kellogg's, Battle Creek, MI, USA) 55±7 30 12
 mean of four studies 44±6 30 9
301 All-Bran Fruit 'n OatsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 41±9 30 7
302 All-Bran Soy 'n fiberTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 33±3 30 4
303 All-Bran Wheat FlakesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 60±8 30 12
304 BalanceTM (Sainsbury's, UK) 74±5 30 17
305 Barley flakes (China) 69±3 30 14
 Barley porridge
306 Barley flour porridge, made from milled dehulled barley 46 50 (dry) 15
  kernels (flour:water = 1:3) boiled for 2.5 min (Sweden)
307 Barley flour porridge, made from milled high-amylose 39 50 (dry) 11
  (covered) barley kernels (flour:water = 1:3),
  boiled for 2.5 min (Sweden)
308 Barley porridge made from steamed thin (0.5 mm) 62 50 (dry) 17
  dehulled barley flakes (Sweden)
309 Barley porridge made from steamed thick (1.0 mm) 65 50 (dry) 18
  dehulled barley flakes (Sweden)
310 Wholemeal barley flour porridge (100% regular barley) 68 50 (dry) 23
  (flour:water = 1:3), boiled 2.5 min (Sweden)
311 Wholemeal high-fiber barley flour porridge (50% 55 50 (dry) 8
  barley flour: 50% high-fiber barley flour) (Sweden)
312 Bran cereal, high fiber (UK) 43±10 30 5
 Bran Flakes
313 Branflakes (Healthy Living, UK) 50±7 30 10
314 Bran Flakes, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM 65±8 30 12
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
315 Bran FlakesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 74 30 13
 mean of three studies 63 30 12
 ChocapicTM (Nestlé, France)
316 ChocapicTM, wheat-based flaked cereal (2003) 70±10 30 17
317 ChocapicTM, wheat-based flaked cereal (2003) 74±9 30 19
318 ChocapicTM, wheat-based flaked cereal (2003) 84±9 30 22
 mean of three studies 76 30 20
 Coco PopsTM (cocoa flavored puffed rice)
319 Coco PopsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±8 30 20
320 Coco PopsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±3 30 20
 CornflakesTM
321 Cornflakes (China) 74±3 30 19
322 CornflakesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 77 30 19
323 Cornflakes (China) 79±4 30 20
324 CornflakesTM (Kellogg's Inc., Canada) 80±6 30 21
325 Cornflakes (Kellogg's, UK) 93±14 30 23
 mean of five studies 81±3 30 20
326 Cornflakes, Crunchy NutTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 72±4 30 17
327 Corn PopsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 80±4 30 21
328 Energy MixTM, wheat-based flaked cereal 80±7 30 20
  (Quaker, France)
329 Fibre First Multi-Bran Cereal, President's Choice® 56±10 30 6
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
330 Froot LoopsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 69±9 30 18
331 FrostiesTM, sugar-coated cornflakes 55 30 14
  (Kellogg's, Australia)
 Fruit and FibreTM
332 Fruit and FibreTM (Sainsbury's, UK) 61±4 30 13
333 Fruit and Fibre (UK) 67±7 30 14
334 Fruit and Fibre (Value, UK) 68±7 30 13
 mean of three studies 65 30 13
335 Fruity-BixTM, berry (Sanitarium, New Zealand) 113±10 30 25
336 Golden WheatsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 71±8 30 16
337 Granola Clusters, Original, low fat, 63±4 30 14
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
338 Granola Clusters, Raisin & Almond, low fat, 70±7 30 15
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
339 GrapenutsTM (Kraft Foods Inc, Port Chester, USA) 75±6 30 16
340 GuardianTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 37±9 30 5
341 HealthwiseTM for bowel health (Uncle Toby's, 66±9 30 12
  Wahgunyah, Australia)
342 High-fiber cereal (UK) 52±6 30 9
343 Hi-LiteTM, containing 55% rolled barley grains 54±5 30 10
  (Freedom Foods, Cheltenham, Australia)
344 Honey Rice BubblesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±4 30 20
345 Honey SmacksTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 71±10 30 16
346 Hot cereal, apple & cinnamon (Con Agra Inc, USA) 37±6 30 8
347 Hot cereal, unflavored (Con Agra Inc., USA) 25±5 30 5
348 Just RightTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 60±15 30 13
349 Just Right Just GrainsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 62±11 30 14
350 Kashi Seven Whole Grain Puffs 65±10 30 16
  (Kashi Company, USA)
351 KompleteTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 48±5 30 10
 Mini Wheats, whole wheat
352 Mini WheatsTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 58±8 30 12
353 Mini Wheats (Sainsbury's, UK) 59±7 30 12
354 Mini WheatsTM, blackcurrant (Kellogg's, Australia) 72±10 30 15
 Muesli
355 Alpen original muesli, made from steamed rolled oats 55±10 30 11
  with dried fruit and nuts (Weetabix, UK)
356 Bürgen® Fruit & Muesli 51 30 10
  (George Weston Foods, Australia)
357 Bürgen® Soy-LinTM Muesli 51±3 30 9
  (George Weston Foods, Australia)
358 Bürgen® Rye Muesli 41 30 7
  (George Weston Foods, Australia)
359 Muesli (Value, UK) 64±9 30 12
360 Muesli (Canada) 66±9 30 16
361 Muesli (Healthy Eating, UK) 86±10 30 18
362 Muesli, fruit (UK) 67±7 30 14
363 Muesli, fruit and nut (UK) 59±11 30 11
364 Muesli, gluten-free with Psyllium 50±7 30 5
  (Freedom Foods, Australia)
365 Muesli, Light, mixed berry & apple flavor, 64±7 30 13
  Special K brand (Kellogg's, Australia)
366 Muesli, Lite (Sanitarium, New Zealand) 54±12 30 10
367 Muesli, Morning Sun Natural Apricot & Almond 49±5 30 6
  (Australia)
368 Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, Australia) 40±6 30 8
369 Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, New Zealand) 57±9 30 11
370 Muesli, Natural Style Original Swiss Formula 62±6 30 11
  (Uncle Toby's, Australia)
371 Muesli, Naytura Fruit and Nut 48±6 30 7
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
372 Muesli, Swiss Bircher (Woolworths Limited, Australia) 52±5 30 9
373 Muesli, Swiss Formula (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 56±8 30 9
374 Muesli, toasted (Purina, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 43±:4 30 7
375 Muesli, toasted, with nuts (Australia) 65±5 30 11
376 Muesli, wholewheat (UK) 56±6 30 10
377 Muesli, yeast & wheat free (Freedom Foods, Australia) 45±5 30 4
378 Vogel's Café Style Fibre-Rich Muesli 48±6 30 9
  (Specialty Cereals, Mt Kuring-gai, NSW, Australia)
379 NutrigrainTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 66±12 30 10
 Oat bran, consumed as a drink mixed
 with 41g glucose and water
380 15 g Oat bran (containing 2 g β-glucan), consumed 84±6 10 2
  as a drink with glucose and water (Finland)
381 30 g Oat bran (containing 4 g β-glucan), consumed 58±6 10 2
  as a drink with glucose and water (Finland)
382 30 g Oat bran (containing 4 g β-glucan), consumed 64±8 10 2
  as a drink mixed with glucose and water, frozen for 13
  days and then thawed before consumption (Finland)
383 45 g Oat bran (containing 6 g β-glucan), consumed 64±9 10 2
  as a drink with glucose and water (Finland)
384 Oat 'n Honey BakeTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±11 30 13
385 Oats, rolled, uncooked (Lowan's Whole Foods, 59±4 30 11
  Box Hill, Australia)
 Porridge made from rolled oats
386 Porridge (Uncle Toby's, Australia)17 42 250 9
387 Porridge, made from rolled oats cooked for 20 min 49±8 250 11
  (Canada)
388 Porridge oats (Freedom Foods, Australia) 50±4 250 10
389 Traditional porridge oats 51±8 250 11
  (Lowan Whole Foods, Australia)
390 Porridge, made from steel-cut oats, cooked in water 52±4 250 17
  (USA)
391 Porridge (China) 55±2 250 13
392 Traditional Rolled Oats (Woolworths Limited, Australia) 57±5 250 11
393 Old-Fashioned Steel Cut Oats, President's Choice® 57±8 250 14
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
394 Porridge (Hubbards, New Zealand) 58±9 250 12
395 Porridge (Australia) 58±4 250 12
396 Porridge (Value, UK) 63±15 250 19
397 Porridge, organic (UK) 63±11 250 18
398 Porridge, Scottish (UK) 63±7 250 20
 mean of thirteen studies 55±2 250 13
399 Multi grain instant oatmeal, Regular and Cinnamon 55±7 250 14
  & Spice, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
400 Multigrain porridge, containing rolled oats, wheat, 55±2 250 19
  triticale, rye, barley and rice, cooked with water
  (The Monster Muesli Company, Beecroft, Australia)
401 Wholemeal oat flour porridge (flour:water = 1:3), 74 50 (dry) 24
  boiled 2.5 min (Sweden)
402 Oat porridge made from thick (1.0 mm) 55 250 15
  dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
403 Oat porridge made from 0.5-0.6 mm thick flakes, 76±7 250 19
  cooked for 10min (Elovena; Raisio Group Ltd,
  Raisio, Finland)
404 Oat porridge made from roasted thin (0.5 mm) 69 250 19
  dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
405 Oat porridge made from roasted thick (1.0 mm) 50 250 14
  dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
406 Oat porridge made from roasted and steamed thin 80 250 22
  (0.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
407 Oat porridge made from steamed thick (1.0 mm) 53 250 14
  dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
 Instant Porridge
408 Instant porridge (China) 69±3 250 14
409 Instant oat porridge, cooked in microwave 82±10 250 20
  with water (Uncle Toby's, Australia)
410 Instant oatmeal porridge, made from packet (China) 83±7 250 18
411 Instant oat cereal porridge prepared with water (UK) 83±10 250 30
 mean of four studies 79±3 250 21
412 Pop TartsTM, Double Chocolate (Kellogg's, Australia) 70±2 50 25
413 Puffed Wheat (Sanitarium, Australia) 80±11 30 17
414 Raisin BranTM (Kellogg's, USA) 61±5 30 12
415 Rice Bran, extruded (Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd, 19±3 30 3
  Leeton, Australia)
 Rice Bubbles
416 Rice BubblesTM (Kellogg's, Australia)17 81 30 21
417 Rice BubblesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 85±3 30 22
418 Rice BubblesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 92±8 30 24
419 Rice BubblesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 95 30 25
 mean of four studies 88±3 30 23
420 Shredded Wheat (Canada) 67±10 30 13
421 Soy Crunch Multi-Grain Cereal, President's Choice® 47±4 30 9
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 Special KTM - formulation of this cereal
 varies in different countries
422 Special KTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 54±4 30 11
423 Special KTM (Kellogg's, USA) 69±5 30 14
424 Special KTM, made from rice (Kellogg's, France) 84±12 30 20
425 Soy TastyTM (flaked grains, soy nuts, dried fruit) 60±5 30 12
  (Sanitarium, Australia)
426 SoytanaTM, Vogel's, soy and linseed bran crunch 49±3 45 12
  with sultanas (20.1 g fiber per 100 g),
  (Specialty Cereals, Mt Kuring-gai, NSW, Australia)
427 Sultana BranTM (Kellogg's, Australia) (2007) 64±3 30 12
428 Sultana BranTM (Kellogg's, Australia) (1997) 73±13 30 14
429 SustainTM, Original (Kellogg's, Australia) (2007) 55±5 30 12
430 Ultra-branTM, Vogel's, soy and linseed extruded 41±4 30 5
  wheat bran cereal (30.2 g fiber per 100 g)
  (Specialty Cereals, Australia)
431 Vogel's Cluster Crunch Classic (Specialty Cereals, 50±6 30 10
  Australia)
432 Vogel's Cluster Crunch, Honey Hazelnut 43±3 30 8
  (Specialty Cereals, Australia)
433 Wild Oats Cluster Crunch Hazelnut Chocolate 43±6 30 8
  (Specialty Cereals, Australia)
434 Wheat-bitesTM (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 72±11 30 18
 Wheat biscuits (plain flaked wheat)
435 Vita-BritsTM (Uncle Toby's, Australia)17 61 30 12
436 Vita-BritsTM (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 68±6 30 13
437 Weet-BixTM (Sanitarium, Australia) 69 30 12
438 Weet-BixTM (Sanitarium, Australia) 69±4 30 12
439 WeetabixTM (Weetabix of Canada Ltd.) 75±10 30 16
440 Whole wheat GoldiesTM (Kellogg's, Australia) 70±4 30 14
441 Wheat based cereal biscuit (UK) 72±10 30 14
 mean of seven studies 69±2 30 13
 Wheat biscuits (flaked wheat) with
  additional ingredients
442 Good StartTM, muesli wheat biscuits 68±4 30 14
  (Sanitarium, Australia)
443 Hi-Bran Weet-BixTM, wheat biscuits with extra 61±4 30 10
  wheat bran (Sanitarium, Australia)
444 Hi-Bran Weet-BixTM with soy and linseed 57±3 30 9
  (Sanitarium, Australia)
445 Honey GoldiesTM (Kellogg's Australia) 72±3 30 15
446 Lite-BixTM, plain, no added sugar 70±3 30 14
  (Sanitarium, Australia)
447 Oat bran Weet-BixTM (Sanitarium, Australia) 57±4 30 11
448 Sultana GoldiesTM (Kellogg's Australia) 65±6 30 13
 
 BREAKFAST CEREALS WITH MILK
449 Branflakes (Sainsbury's, UK), with semi-skimmed milk 76±5 30 15
450 Cereal flakes with fruit (30 g), consumed with 125 mL 57±8 155 16
  skim milk (UK)
451 Cocoa Crunch cereal (30 g) with 125 mL skim milk (UK) 58±11 155 16
452 Cornflakes (Sainsbury's, UK) (30 g), consumed with 65±5 30 16
  125 mL skim milk
453 Honey Crunch cereal (30 g), consumed with 54±6 155 16
  125 mL skim milk (UK)
 Hot oat cereal, prepared with 125 mL skim milk
454 Hot oat cereal (30 g), berry flavor (UK) 43±6 155 11
455 Hot oat cereal (30 g), cocoa flavor (UK) 40±5 155 9
456 Hot oat cereal (30 g), fruit flavor (UK) 47±8 155 12
457 Hot oat cereal (30 g), honey flavor (UK) 47±6 155 12
458 Hot oat cereal (30 g), orchard fruit flavor (UK) 50±7 155 12
459 Hot oat cereal (30 g) (UK) 47±6 155 11
460 Hot oat cereal (30 g) (UK) 40±9 155 9
 mean of seven foods 45±1 155 11
461 Muesli, gluten-free (Freedom Foods, Australia) 39±6 30 7
  with 1.5% fat milk
462 Muesli, Original (Sainsbury's, UK), consumed 60±6 30 11
  with semi-skimmed milk
463 Muesli, Swiss (Sainsbury's, UK), consumed with 60±6 30 12
  semi-skimmed milk
464 Muesli, Wheat free (Pertwee Farm's, UK), consumed 49±7 30 9
  with semi-skimmed milk
465 Porridge, jumbo oats (Sainsbury's, UK), consumed 40±6 250 9
  with semi-skimmed milk
466 Porridge, small oats (Sainsbury's, UK), consumed 61±6 250 14
  with semi-skimmed milk
467 PreciseTM (Sainsbury's, UK), with semi-skimmed milk 59±4 30 14
468 Rice PopsTM (Sainsbury's, UK), 80±6 30 20
  with semi-skimmed milk
 Wheat biscuits consumed with 125 mL skim milk
469 Cereal biscuit (30 g), cocoa flavor (UK) 46±7 155 12
470 Cereal biscuit (30 g), fruit flavor (UK) 56±7 155 15
471 Cereal biscuit (30 g), honey flavor (UK) 52±7 155 14
472 Cereal biscuit (30 g), wheat based (UK) 47±8 155 12
 mean of four foods 50±2 155 13
 
 BREAKFAST CEREAL BARS
473 Cereal bar, cranberry flavor (UK) 42±5 30 6
474 Cereal bar, hazelnut flavor (UK) 33±6 30 4
475 Cereal bar, orange flavor (UK) 33±3 30 5
476 Crunchy Nut CornflakesTM bar (Kellogg's, Australia) 72±6 30 19
477 Fiber PlusTM bar (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 78±9 30 18
478 Fruity-BixTM bar, wheat biscuit cereal with dried fruit 56±4 30 11
  and nuts with yoghurt coating (Sanitarium, Australia)
479 Fruity-BixTM bar, wild berry, wheat biscuit cereal and 51±4 30 9
  covered with yoghurt coating (Sanitarium, Australia)
480 Hi-LiteTM breakfast bar (Freedom Foods, Australia) 53±3 30 11
481 K-Time Just RightTM bar (Kellogg's, Australia) 72±4 30 17
482 K-Time Strawberry CrunchTM bar (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±5 30 19
483 Muesli breakfast bar, gluten-free 50±6 30 9
  (Freedom Foods, Australia)
484 Omega bar, containing linseeds, sunflower kernels 21±2 30 3
  and nuts, gluten-free (Freedom Foods, Australia)
485 Rice Bubble TreatTM bar (Kellogg's, Australia) 63±11 30 15
486 SustainTM bar (Kellogg's, Australia) 57±10 30 14
 CEREAL GRAINS
 Barley
487 Barley kernels, high-amylose (hull-less) boiled in 20 150 8
  water for 25 min (kernel:water = 1:2.5) (Sweden)
488 Barley kernels, waxy (hull-less), boiled in water 22 150 9
  for 25 min (kernel:water = 1:2.5) (Sweden)
489 Barley kernels, boiled in water for 25 min 25 150 10
  (kernel:water = 1:2) (Sweden)
490 Barley kernels, high-amylose (covered), boiled in 26 150 11
  water for 25 min (kernel:water = 1:2) (Sweden)
491 Barley, pot, boiled in salted water 20 min 25±2 150 11
  (Goudas Food Products, Concord, Canada)
492 Barley, pearled, boiled 60 min (UK) 35±4 150 15
493 Barley, pot, boiled (Goudas Food Products, Canada) 35±4 150 15
494 Barley, pot, boiled 20 min (Goudas Food 37 150 16
  Products, Canada)
 mean of eight studies 28±2 150 12
495 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) 48 150 20
496 Barley, rolled (Australia) 66±5 50 (dry) 25
497 Buckwheat groats, hydrothermally treated, 45 150 13
  dehusked, boiled 12 min (Sweden)
 Corn/Maize
498 Corn granules (China) 52±3 150 15
499 Maize (Zea Mays), flour made into chapatti (India) 59 30 8
500 Cornmeal porridge (China) 68±3 150 9
 Sweet corn
501 Sweet corn, 'Honey & Pearl' variety (New Zealand) 37±12 150 11
502 Sweet corn, on the cob, boiled 20 min (Australia) 48 150 14
503 Sweet corn (China) 55±2 150 18
504 Sweet corn (USA)11 60 150 20
505 Sweet corn (South Africa) 62±5 150 20
 mean of five studies 52±5 150 17
 Couscous
506 Couscous, rehydrated with hot water 65±7 150 9
  (San Remo, Australia)
 Millet
507 Millet porridge (China) 62±3 150 22
508 Quinoa, cooked, refridgerated, reheated in microwave 53±5 150 13
  for 1.5 min (Nature First Organic, Australia)
 Rice, white
509 Arborio, risotto rice, boiled (SunRice brand, 69±7 150 36
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
 Rice, boiled white, type NS
510 Type NS (India)9 43 150 16
511 Type NS (Canada) 72±9 150 30
512 Type NS, boiled in salted water (India) 72 150 27
513 Type NS (China) 83±1 150 30
514 Type NS, boiled 13 min (Italy)9,18 89 150 43
 mean of five studies 72±8 150 29
515 Type NS, boiled in salted water, refrigerated 16-20 h, 53 150 20
  reheated (India)
516 Type NS, boiled 13 min, then baked 10 min (Italy)9,18 94 150 45
 Long grain, boiled
517 Long grain, white, unconverted, boiled 15 min 50 150 21
  (Mahatma brand, Riviana Foods,
  Wetherill Park, Australia )
518 Long grain, white (Uncle Bens, Auckland, 56±7 150 24
  New Zealand)
519 Premium long grain, white (SunRice brand, 59±7 150 24
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
520 Long grain, white, boiled 7 min (Star brand, 64±3 150 26
  Gouda Food Products, Canada)
521 Long grain, boiled (Star Brand, Goudas Food 69±3 150 28
  Products, Canada)
 mean of five studies 60±3 150 25
 Rice, long grain, quick-cooking varieties
522 Long grain, parboiled 10 min cooking time 68±6 150 25
  (Uncle Ben's, Masterfoods, Belgium)
523 Long grain, parboiled, 20 min cooking time 75±7 150 28
  (Uncle Ben's, Masterfoods, Belgium)
524 Long grain, white, pre-cooked, microwaved 2 min 52±5 150 19
  (Express Rice, plain, Uncle Ben's, Masterfoods, UK)
525 Long Grain White Rice in 90 Seconds, microwaved 76±7 150 44
  (SunRice brand, Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
526 Medium grain white rice, boiled 12 mins 75±8 150 29
  Sun Rice brand, Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
 Rice porridge/Congee
527 Rice porridge (China) 69±6 150 23
528 Rice porridge (Australia) 88±5 150 13
529 Rice porridge, made from rice bran (China) 19±1 150 3
530 Rice porridge, made from black rice (China) 42±3 150 14
531 Rice porridge, made from Sticky rice (China) 65±7 150 21
 Rice, specialty rices
532 American, easy-cook rice (Sainsbury's, UK) 49±12 150 22
533 Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker 86±10 150 37
  (Lion Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)
534 Brown Rice, Uncle Ben's® Ready Whole Grain 48±5 150 20
  (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
535 Brown & Wild, Uncle Ben's® Ready Whole Grain 45±5 150 18
  MedleyTM (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
536 Chicken Flavored Brown Rice, Uncle Ben's® Ready 46±4 150 18
  Whole Grain (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
537 Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker 98±7 150 31
  (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Mill, Bangkok, Thailand)
 Jasmine rice, white
538 Jasmine Fragrant rice, white (SunRice brand, 89±4 150 37
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
539 Jasmine rice, white long grain, cooked in rice cooker 109±10 150 46
  (Golden World Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)
540 Long Grain and Wild, Uncle Ben's® Ready Rice 49±3 150 21
  (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
541 Moolgiri white rice (Tajmahal Agro Industries, India) 54 150 17
542 Original Long Grain, Uncle Ben's® Ready Rice 48±5 150 22
  (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
543 Red Raw rice, Sri Lankan, cooked in rice cooker 59±4 100 (dry) 46
  (Australia)
544 Roasted Chicken Flavored, Uncle Ben's® Ready 51±4 150 21
  Rice (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
545 Santa Fe, Uncle Ben's® Ready Whole Grain 48±6 150 18
  MedleyTM (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
546 Spanish Style, Uncle Ben's® Ready Rice (pouch) 51±4 150 22
  (Effem Foods, USA)
547 Vegetable Harvest, Uncle Ben's® Ready Whole 48±5 150 17
  Grain MedleyTM (pouch) (Effem Foods, USA)
 Rice, white low-amylose
548 Calrose, white, medium grain, boiled (Rice Growers 83±13 150 36
  Co-op., Australia)
549 Sungold, Pelde, parboiled (Rice Growers Co-op., 87±7 150 37
  Australia)
550 Waxy (0-2% amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 88±11 150 38
551 Pelde, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 93±11 150 40
 Rice, white high-amylose
 Doongara, white (SunRice CleverRiceTM brand,
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
552 Doongara, white, cooked in rice cooker (2007) 48±4 150 19
553 Doongara, white (1995) 50±6 150 20
554 Doongara, white (2005) 54±6 150 21
555 Doongara, white (1995) 54±7 150 21
556 Doongara, white (1992) 64±9 150 25
 mean of five studies 54±3 150 21
 Basmati, white, boiled
557 Basmati, white, boiled (Sainsbury's, UK) 43±8 150 18
558 Basmati, white, boiled 12 min (Value, UK) 52±11 150 15
559 Basmati, white, organic, boiled 10 min (UK) 57±10 150 23
560 Basmati, white, boiled (Mahatma brand, Australia) 58±8 150 22
561 Basmati, white, boiled (SunRice brand, 65±7 150 25
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
562 Basmati, white, boiled 8 min (UK) 69±6 150 28
 mean of six studies 57±4 150 22
 Basmati, white, quick cooking
563 Basmati, easy cook, boiled 9 min (UK) 67±11 150 28
564 Basmati, easy-cook rice (Sainsbury's, UK) 68±8 150 28
565 Precooked basmati rice in pouch, white, reheated in 57±4 150 24
  microwave, Uncle Ben's Express® (Masterfoods, UK)
566 Quick cooking white basmati, cooked 10 min, 60±5 150 23
  Uncle Ben's® Superior (Masterfoods, Belgium)
567 Japanese Style Sushi rice, white (SunRice brand, 85±10 150 33
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
 Japonica/Koshihikari rice
568 Japonica, short-grain brown rice (Japan) 62±5 150 26
569 Japonica short-grain brown rice, 54±5 150 22
  pre-germinated (Japan)
570 Japonica short-grain brown rice, 57±3 150 23
  pre-germinated (Japan)
571 Koshikari (Japonica), white, short-grain, 48±8 150 18
  boiled 15 min, then steamed 10 min (Japan)
572 Japonica, short-grain white rice (Japan) 76±7 150 35
573 Japonica, short-grain white rice (Japan) 75±6 150 34
574 Japonica white rice and pre-germinated Japonica 64±5 150 27
  brown rice (ratio 1:2)
575 Japonica white rice and pre-germinated Japonica 67±3 150 30
  brown rice (ratio 2:1)
576 Koshihikari rice, white (SunRice brand, 73±7 150 28
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
 Japonica rice enriched with Sunfibre
  (Cyamoposis tetragonolobus) (soluble fiber)
577 Japonica rice with 3 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 68±6 150 27
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan)
578 Japonica rice with 5 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 66±6 150 26
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan)
 Milled, white, high amylose rice
579 Milled (white), high amylose (IR42) rice, 66 150 28
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
580 Milled (white), high amylose (IR42) rice, 64 150 28
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
581 Milled (white), high amylose (IR42) rice, 64 150 28
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
582 Milled (white), high amylose (IR62) rice, 43 150 18
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
583 Milled (white), high amylose (IR36) rice, 50 150 22
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
584 Milled (white), high amylose (IR62) rice, 53 150 23
  cooked in rice cooker 20 min (Philippines)
585 Milled (white), high amylose (IR36) rice, 55 150 24
  cooked in rice cooker 19 min (Philippines)
586 Milled (white), high amylose (IR42) rice, 58 150 25
  cooked in rice cooker 14 min (Philippines)
 Rice, brown
587 Brown (Canada) 66±5 150 21
588 Brown, steamed (USA)11,14 50 150 16
589 Brown rice, boiled in excess water for 25 mins 72±6 150 29
  (SunRice brand, Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
590 Brown rice (China) 87±2 150 29
591 Calrose brown (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia) 87±8 150 33
592 Doongara brown, high amylose 66±7 150 24
  (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
593 Medium Grain Brown Rice in 90 seconds, 59±8 150 30
  microwaved on high (SunRice brand,
  Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)
594 Pelde brown (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia) 76±6 150 29
595 Parboiled, cooked 20 min, Uncle Ben's Natur-reis® 64±7 150 23
  (Masterfoods, Belgium)
596 Sunbrown QuickTM (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia) 80±7 150 31
 Rice, brown, high-amlyose
597 Brown, high amylose (IR42) rice, boiled 30 min 58 150 24
  (Philippines)
 Instant/puffed rice
598 Instant rice, white, cooked 3 min (China) 46±3 150 19
599 Instant rice, white, cooked 6 min 87±7 150 36
  (Trice brand, Australia)
600 Instant rice, white, cooked 6 min (China) 87±2 150 37
601 Puffed, white, cooked 5 min, Uncle Ben's Snabbris® 74±5 150 31
  (Masterfoods, Belgium)
 mean of four studies 74±10 150 31
602 Instant Doongara, white, cooked 5 min 94±7 150 39
  (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
 Parboiled rice
603 Converted, white, boiled 20-30 min, Uncle Ben's® 38 150 14
  (Masterfoods, USA)
604 Parboiled, low-amylose, Pelde, Sungold 87±7 150 34
  (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
605 Parboiled, high-amylose (28%), Doongara 50±6 150 19
  (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
 Sticky rice
606 Rice, Sticky (China) 87±2 150 24
607 Rice, Sticky (China) 88±2 150 25
608 Rice, Sticky, high-amylose (China) 50±2 150 14
 Wheat
 Wheat, whole kernels
609 Wheat, whole kernels (Triticum aestivum)(India)14 30±9 50 (dry) 11
 Wheat, precooked kernels
610 Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 20 min 52±4 50 (dry) 19
  (Ebly, Chateaudun, France)
611 Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 10 min (Ebly, France) 50±5 50 (dry) 17
612 Durum wheat, precooked in pouch, 40±5 125 16
  reheated in microwave, Ebly Express (Ebly, France)
613 Quick cooking (White Wings, Sydney, Australia) 54±11 150 25
 
 COOKIES
614 Apricot Temptation fruit cookies, 97% fat-free 47±4 25 8
  (Freedom Foods, Australia)
615 Milk ArrowrootTM (Arnotts, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 69±7 25 12
616 Barquette Abricot (LU, Ris, Orangis, France) 71±6 40 23
 Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate (LU, Czech Republic)
617 Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate (2002) 46±4 50 16
618 Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate (2006) 46±3 50 16
619 Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate 57±9 50 19
  (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic)
 mean of three studies 50 50 17
620 Bebe Dobre Rano Coconut (LU, Czech Republic) 48±3 50 16
621 Bebe Dobre Rano Four Cereals (LU, Czech Republic) 51±4 50 17
622 Bebe Dobre Rano Honey and Hazelnuts 51±9 50 17
  (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic)
 Bebe Dobre Rano Nuts & Honey (LU, Czech Republic)
623 Bebe Dobre Rano Nuts and Honey (2002) 41±5 50 14
624 Bebe Dobre Rano Nuts and Honey (2006) 45±4 50 15
625 Bebe Dobre Rano with Milk (LU, Czech Republic) 50±4 50 18
626 Bebe Jemne Susenky (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic) 67±11 25 14
627 Better Choice Multicereals (LU, Denmark) 51±4 50 17
628 Better Choice Wholegrain (LU Denmark) 46±3 50 16
629 Chocolate chip cookies, containing coconut flour 43 25 7
  (Philippines)
 Digestives
630 Digestives (UK) 39±5 25 6
631 Digestives (Canada) 59±7 25 9
632 Evergreen met Krenten (LU, Netherlands) 66±12 38 14
633 Gran'Dia Banana, Oats and Honey (LU, Brazil) 28±5 30 6
634 Gran'Dia Chocolate with five cereals (Danone, Brazil) 39±8 30 8
635 Grany en-cas Abricot (LU, France) 55±6 30 9
636 Grany en-cas Fruits des bois (LU, France) 50±5 30 7
637 Grany Rush Apricot (LU, Netherlands) 62±3 30 12
 Györi édes Jó reggelt! Müzlivel és gyümölccsel /
  Fruits and Muesli (LU, Hungary)
638 Györi édes Jó reggelt! Müzlivel és gyümölccsel (2002) 45±5 50 16
639 Györi édes Jó reggelt! Müzlivel és gyümölccsel (2003) 49±5 50 18
640 Györi édes Jó reggelt! Müzlivel és gyümölccsel (2004) 47±6 50 17
 mean of three studies 47 50 17
641 Highland OatmealTM (Westons Biscuits, Australia) 55±8 25 10
642 Jo Reggelt Fruits and Figs (LU, Hungary) 41±6 50 14
643 Jubilee Nuts and Honey (LU, Russia) (2002) 44±3 50 15
644 Jubilee Nuts and Honey (LU, Russia) (2003) 45±4 50 15
 Jyväshyvä Paussi Mysli and Fruits (LU Finland)
645 Jyväshyvä Paussi Mysli and Fruits (2002) 45±5 50 16
646 Jyväshyvä Paussi Mysli and Fruits (2003) 49±5 50 18
647 Jyväshyvä Paussi Mysli and Fruits (2004) 47±6 50 17
 mean of three studies 47 50 17
648 Jyväshyvä Paussi Vanilla (LU Finland) (2004) 55±7 50 19
649 Jyväshyvä Paussi Vanilla (LU Finland) (2006) 39±4 50 13
650 Jyväshyvä Paussi Wholegrain (LU Finland) 46±3 50 16
651 Leda Luxury gluten-free chocolate coated cookies 35±7 25 4
  (Leda Nutrition, QLD, Australia)
652 LU P'tit Déjeuner Chocolat (LU, France) 42±5 50 14
 LU P'tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat
  (LU, France)
653 LU P'tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat 45±5 50 16
654 LU P'tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat 49±8 50 18
655 LU P'tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat 52±3 50 18
 mean of three studies 49 50 17
656 LU Petit Déjeuner, Chocolate, low in sugar (LU France) 51±7 50 18
 LU Petit Déjeuner Chocolate & Cereals (LU, France)
657 LU Petit Déjeuner Chocolate & Cereals (2003) 46±6 50 16
658 LU Petit Déjeuner Chocolate & Cereals (2006) 58±6 50 20
659 LU Petit Déjeuner Cereals & Chocolate Chips, low in 37±5 50 13
  sugar (LU France, LU Belgium, LU Czech Republic)
 LU Petit Déjeuner Coconut, nuts and chocolate
  (LU, France)
660 LU Petit Déjeuner Coconut, nuts and chocolate (2005) 55±6 50 19
661 LU Petit Déjeuner Coconut, nuts and chocolate (2006) 51±7 50 17
 LU Petit Déjeuner Fruits and Muesli (LU France)
662 LU Petit Déjeuner Fruits and Muesli (2002) 45±5 50 16
663 LU Petit Déjeuner Fruits and Muesli (2003) 49±5 50 18
664 LU Petit Déjeuner Fruits and Muesli (2004) 47±6 50 17
 mean of three studies 47 50 17
 LU Petit Déjeuner Honey & Chocolate chips
  (LU France)
665 LU Petit Déjeuner Honey & Chocolate chips (2003) 47±6 50 17
666 LU Petit Déjeuner Honey & Chocolate chips (2006) 46±4 50 16
 LU Petit Déjeuner Milk and Cereals
  (LU France and LU Belgium)
667 LU Petit Déjeuner Milk and Cereals (2004) 55±7 50 19
668 LU Petit Déjeuner Milk and Cereals (2006) 39±4 50 13
669 LU Petit Déjeuner Multicereals (LU France, LU Belgium) 46±3 50 16
670 LU Petit Déjeuner with Fruits and Figs 41±6 50 14
  (LU France, LU Belgium)
671 LU Petit Déjeuner with Prunes (LU, France) 51±6 50 17
672 Macaroons, prepared with coconut flour (Philippines) 32 30 6
673 Maltmeal wafer (Griffin's Foods Ltd., New Zealand) 50±10 25 9
674 Morning CoffeeTM (Arnotts, Australia) 79±6 25 15
675 Nutrigrain Fruits des bois (Kellogg's, France) 57±4 35 13
676 Oat biscuit (UK) 45±7 25 7
677 Oat biscuit (China) 55±1 25 9
678 Oat biscuit, Nairn'sTM Stem Ginger Oat Biscuit 55 25 9
  (Nairn's Oatcakes Ltd, Edinburgh, Scotland)
679 Oatmeal (Canada) 54±4 25 9
680 Oro (Saiwa, Italy) 61±9 40 21
 Petiki Go ! Fruits and Muesli (LU Poland)
681 Petiki Go ! Fruits and Muesli (2002) 45±5 50 16
682 Petiki Go ! Fruits and Muesli (2003) 49±5 50 18
683 Petiki Go ! Fruits and Muesli (2004) 47±6 50 17
 mean of three studies 47 50 17
684 Petit brun extra (LU, France) 77±12 25 15
685 Petit LU Normand (LU, France) 51±3 25 10
686 Petit LU Roussillon (LU, France) 48±4 25 9
687 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Cranberry 60±4 25 10
  Orange Cookies (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
688 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Crunchy 62±7 25 10
  Oat Cookies (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
689 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Ginger & 64±5 25 11
  Lemon Cookies (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
690 Prince Energie+ (LU, France) 73±5 25 13
691 Prince fourre chocolat (LU, France) 50±5 45 15
692 Prince fourre chocolat (LU, France) 53±5 45 16
693 Prince gout chocolat (LU, France) 53±5 45 17
694 Prince Meganana Chocolate (LU, Spain) 49±12 50 18
695 Prince Petit Dej Cereals (LU, France) 52±7 50 18
696 Prince Petit Dej Cereals and Chocolate (LU, France) 51±5 50 18
697 Prince Petit Déjeuner Vanille (LU, France and Spain) 45±6 50 16
698 Principe megamanana vanilla (LU, Spain) 45±6 50 16
699 Rich Tea (UK) 40±5 25 7
700 Rich Tea (Canada) 55±4 25 10
701 Sable des Flandres (LU, France) 57±10 20 8
702 Shortbread (Arnotts, Australia) 64±8 25 10
703 Shredded WheatmealTM (Arnotts, Australia) 62±4 25 11
704 Snack Right Fruit Pillow, Apple and blackberry 43±3 35 11
  (Arnotts, Australia)
705 Snack Right Fruit Pillow, Spicy apple and sultana 45±3 35 11
  (Arnotts, Australia)
706 Snack Right Fruit Pillow, Wild berry (Arnott's, Australia) 52±3 35 13
707 Snack Right Fruit Slice, Mango and passionfruit 49±3 35 13
  (Arnott's, Australia)
708 Snack Right Fruit Slice, Mixed berry (Arnott's, Australia) 50±3 35 13
709 Snack Right Fruit Slice, Original Sultana (97% fat-free) 48±2 35 12
  (Arnott's, Australia)
710 Snack Right Fruit Slice, Sultana with chocolate 45±3 35 11
  (Arnott's, Australia)
711 The (LU, France) 41±7 25 8
712 Veritable Petit Beurre (LU, France) 51±8 25 10
713 Veritable Petit Beurre (LU, France) (2002) 54±5 25 10
714 Veritable Petit Beurre (LU, France) (2006) 54±6 25 10
715 Vitasnella frollini (Saiwa, Italy) 59±10 25 12
 
 CRACKERS
716 Choice grain crackers (UK) 49±7 25 8
717 Corn Thins, puffed corn cakes, gluten-free 87±10 25 18
  (Real Foods, St Peters, Australia)
718 Cream Cracker (LU Triumfo, Brazil) 65±11 25 11
719 High-calcium cracker (Danone, Malaysia) 52±8 25 9
720 JatzTM, plain salted craker biscuits (Arnotts, Australia) 55±5 25 10
721 Lees Cabin Crackers (Fiji) 60±5 25 11
722 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Ancient Grains 65±6 25 10
  snack crackers (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
723 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Wheat & Onion 60±6 25 10
  snack crackers (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
724 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Wheat & Sesame 56±7 25 9
  snack crackers (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
725 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Wheat snack 65±7 25 11
  crackers (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
726 Puffed Crispbread (Westons, Australia) 81±9 25 15
 Puffed rice cakes
727 Puffed rice cakes, white (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia) 82±11 25 17
728 Rice cake (China) 82±3 25 17
729 Rice cakes, Calrose rice (low-amylose) 91±7 25 19
  (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
730 Rice cakes, Doongara rice (high-amylose) 61±5 25 13
  (Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
731 Puffed rice cakes, caramel flavored (USA) 82±10 25 18
732 Rice cracker, plain (Sakada, Japan) 91 30 23
733 Rye crackers with oats (UK) 64±11 25 10
734 Rye crackers with sesame (UK) 57±12 25 9
735 Ryvita® (Canada) 69±10 25 11
736 Ryvita® Pumpkin Seeds & Oats 46±7 25 6
  (George Weston Foods, North Ryde, Australia)
737 Ryvita® Sunflower Seeds & Oats 48±8 25 7
  (George Weston Foods, Australia)
738 KavliTM Norwegian Crispbread 71±7 25 12
  (Players Biscuits, Sydney, Australia)
739 SaoTM, plain square crackers (Arnotts, Australia) 70±9 25 12
 Water cracker
740 Water cracker (Canada) 63±9 25 11
741 Water cracker (Arnotts, Australia) 78±11 25 14
742 Wholegrain crackers with sesame seeds and 53±8 25 8
  rosemary (UK)
743 Wholewheat crackers with pumpkin and thyme (UK) 36±3 25 6
744 Wholewheat sticks, crunchy, yeast extract 50±8 25 7
  flavored (UK)
 DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES
 Custard
745 Custard, low-fat, vanilla flavored (Nestlé, Australia) 29±4 100 3
746 No Bake Egg Custard, prepared from powder 35±2 100 6
  with whole milk (Nestlé, Australia)
747 Custard, home made from milk, wheat starch, 43±10 100 7
  and sugar (Australia)
748 TRIMTM, reduced-fat custard (Pauls Ltd, 37±4 100 6
  Brisbane, Australia)
 mean of four studies 36±3 100 5
749 Custard, low-fat, trifle flavored (Nestlé, Australia) 30±3 100 2
 Creme Fraiche
750 Creme fraiche dessert, peach (Finest, UK)8 28±8 150 7
751 Creme fraiche dessert, raspberry (Finest, UK)8 30±7 150 5
 Fromage Frais
752 Fromage Frais, red fruit: blackcurrant8 22±5 100 2
  (Healthy Living, UK)
753 Fromage Frais, red fruit: raspberry8 31±8 100 2
  (Healthy Living, UK)
754 Fromage Frais, red fruit: red cherry8 25±6 100 2
  (Healthy Living, UK)
755 Fromage Frais, red fruit: strawberry8 29±9 100 2
  (Healthy Living, UK)
756 Fromage Frais, yellow fruit: mandarin and orange8 19±6 100 1
  (Healthy Living, UK)
757 Fromage Frais, yellow fruit: mango and papaya8 25±7 100 2
  (Healthy Living, UK)
758 Fromage Frais, yellow fruit: passionfruit and pineapple8 18±5 100 1
  (Healthy Living, UK)
759 Fromage Frais, yellow fruit: peach and apricot8 22±5 100 1
  (Healthy Living, UK)
760 Fruche®, low-fat, apricot vanilla honey 34±5 150 8
  (National Foods Ltd, Melbourne, Australia)
761 Fruche®, low-fat, berry compote 37±6 150 8
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
762 Fruche®, low-fat, duet peach on pineapple 34±5 150 8
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
763 Fruche®, low-fat, lemon sorbetto 34±3 150 7
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
764 Fruche®, low-fat, orange sorbetto 34±3 150 7
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
765 Fruche®, low-fat, peach roulade 37±6 150 8
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
766 Fruche® on Fruit, low-fat, toffee apple 47±6 150 16
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
767 Ice cream, low carbohydrate, chocolate (Australia)7 32±7 50 1
768 Ice fruit confection, Frosty Fruits® Orange 59±4 50 7
  Mango Splits (Nestlé Peter's, Australia)
 Ice cream, Regular/type NS
769 Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) (Italy)24 57 50 6
 Ice cream, Reduced- or Low-fat
770 ChocolloTM, low-fat chocolate flavored ice cream 24±6 50 3
  (Wendy's Supa Sundaes Pty Ltd, Australia)
771 Ice cream, low-fat, Bulla Light Creamy vanilla 36±5 50 7
  (Regal Cream Products, VIC, Australia)
772 Ice cream, low-fat, Bulla Light Real Dairy chocolate 27±3 50 3
  (Regal Cream Products, Australia)
773 Ice cream, low-fat, Bulla Light Real Dairy English 27±3 50 3
  toffee (Regal Cream Products, Australia)
774 Ice cream, low-fat, Bulla Light Real Dairy mango 30±4 50 4
  (Regal Cream Products, Australia)
775 Ice cream, low-fat, vanilla, 'Light' 46 50 7
  (Nestlé Peter's, Australia)
776 Ice cream, low-fat, Light & Creamy, Raspberry Ripple 55±3 50 9
  (Nestlé Peter's, Australia)
777 Ice-cream, low-fat (1.2 % fat), Light Prestige8 47±5 50 5
  rich vanilla (Norco, Australia)
778 Ice-cream, low-fat (1.4% fat), Light Prestige8 37±4 50 5
  traditional toffee (Norco, Australia)
779 Ice-cream, reduced-fat (7.1 % fat), Prestige8 37±3 50 4
  golden macadamia (Norco, Australia)
 Ice cream, Premium (high-fat)
780 Ice cream, premium, Ultra chocolate, 15% fat 37±3 50 4
  (Sara Lee, Gosford, NSW, Australia)
781 Ice cream, premium, French vanilla, 16% fat 38±3 50 3
  (Sara Lee, Australia)
782 Milk, condensed, sweetened (Nestlé, Australia) 61±6 100 33
 Milk, full-fat
783 Full-fat (Italy)24 11 250 mL 1
784 Full-fat (3% fat, Skanemejerier, Malmo, Sweden)8 21 250 mL 3
785 Full-fat (Dairy Farmers Ltd, Sydney, Australia)25 31±2 250 mL 4
786 Full-fat (Canada) 34±6 250 mL 4
787 Full-fat, pasteurised, fresh, organic (Arla, UK)8 34±6 250 mL 4
788 Full-fat (USA)8 41±2 250 mL 5
789 Full-fat, standardised homogenised, pasteurised, 46±10 250 mL 5
  British (Dairycrest, UK)8
 mean of seven studies 31±4 250 mL 4
790 Fermented cow's milk (ropy milk, langfil, 3% fat) 11 - -
  (Arla, Gavle, Sweden)8
791 Fermented cow's milk (filmjolk, 3% fat) 11 - -
  (Skanemejerier, Malmo, Sweden)8
792 Full-fat milk + 20g wheat bran (Italy)24 28 250 mL 3
 Milk, full-fat, flavored
793 Banana, honey and malt flavored milk (Australia) 31±4 250 mL 8
794 Masters® mocha milk (National Foods Ltd, Australia) 32±4 250 mL 9
 Milk, reduced-fat
795 Milk, reduced fat (1.4%) (Lite WhiteTM, 30±6 250 mL 4
  Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)25
796 Milk, semi-skimmed, British (Dairycrest, UK)8 25±6 250 mL 3
797 Milk, semi-skimmed, pasteurised, organic (Arla, UK)8 34±8 250 mL 4
 mean of three studies 30 250 mL 4
798 Milk, reduced fat with added omega 3 23±3 250 mL 3
  (Take CareTM, Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)25
799 Milk, reduced fat (98% fat free) with added omega 3 27±6 250 mL 4
  (Farmers BestTM, Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)25
 Milk, reduced- or low-fat, flavored
800 Big MTM flavored milk, chocolate or strawberry 37±4 250 mL 9
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
801 Masters® Light, 99% fat free chocolate or mocha milk 27±5 250 mL 6
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
802 Masters®, reduced fat, chocolate or strawberry milk 35±5 250 mL 9
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
803 Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with aspartame, Lite WhiteTM 24±6 250 mL 3
  (Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)
804 Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with sugar, Lite WhiteTM 34±4 250 mL 9
  (Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)
 Rush® flavored milk (Parmalat Australia Ltd,
  South Brisbane, Australia)
805 Rush® Heavenly Vanilla Malt milk 31±4 250 mL 7
806 Rush® Intense Coffee milk 24±3 250 mL 5
807 Rush® Ultimate Chocolate milk 26±5 250 mL 5
808 Rush® Wicked Latte milk 26±3 250 mL 5
 Milk, skim/low-fat
809 PuraTM HiLo milk (National Foods Ltd, Australia) 20±5 250 mL 3
810 PuraTM Skimmer milk (National Foods Ltd, Australia) 20±5 250 mL 3
811 Milk, skim, made from powder (Arla Foods, Sweden)8,9 27 250 mL 3
812 PuraTM Light Start milk (National Foods Ltd, Australia) 30±5 250 mL 4
813 PuraTM Tone milk (National Foods Ltd, Australia) 30±5 250 mL 5
814 Milk, skim (Canada) 32±5 250 mL 4
815 Milk, skim (Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)25 32±6 250 mL 4
816 Milk, skim (USA) 32 250 mL 4
817 Milk, skim (USA)8 37±3 250 mL 5
818 Milk, skimmed, pasteurised, British (Dairycrest, UK)8 48±15 250 mL 6
819 ShapeTM milk, fat free (Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)25 34±3 250 mL 6
 mean of eleven studies 31±2 250 mL 4
820 Milkshake, made from ChocolloTM, low-fat chocolate 21±4 250 mL 6
  ice cream, skim milk and malted milk powder
  (Wendy's Supa Sundaes Pty Ltd, Australia)
 Mousse, prepared
821 Nestlé Combo mousse (Nestlé, Australia) 42±5 70 5
822 Nestlé Milo flavored mousse (Nestlé, Australia) 46±3 70 6
 Mousse, reduced-fat, prepared from
 commerical mousse mix with water
823 Butterscotch, 1.9% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36±4 50 4
824 Chocolate, 2% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 31±4 50 3
825 Citrus (Nestlé, Australia) 47±5 50 14
826 Hazelnut, 2.4% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36±4 50 4
827 Mango, 1.8% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 33±5 50 4
828 Mixed berry, 2.2% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36±5 50 4
829 Strawberry, 2.3% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 32±3 50 3
 mean of seven foods 36±2 50 4
 Pudding, instant (White Wings, Australia)
830 Chocolate, made from powder and whole milk 47±4 100 7
831 Vanilla, made from powder and whole milk 40±4 100 6
 Pudding, made from dairy and rice, YoplaitTM
  Le Rice® (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
832 Le Rice®, Apple & Cinnamon flavor 52±4 180 20
833 Le Rice®, Apricot & Almond Muesli flavor 45±4 180 18
834 Le Rice®, Caramel flavor 41±6 180 16
835 Le Rice®, Forest Berries flavor 45±4 180 16
836 Le Rice®, Raspberry & Apple flavor 52±4 180 20
837 Le Rice®, Strawberry flavor 54±6 180 21
838 Le Rice®, Tropical Mango flavor 54±6 180 20
839 Le Rice®, Vanilla flavor 43±4 180 16
 mean of eight foods 48±2 180 18
 Yoghurt
840 Jalna Bush Honey Bio Dynamic yoghurt 26±3 200 3
  (Jalna Dairy Foods, VIC, Australia)25
841 Jalna Premium Vanilla Creamy yoghurt 18±4 200 3
  (Jalna Dairy Foods, Australia)
842 Yoghurt, black cherry (Finest, UK)8 17±3 200 2
843 Yoghurt, black cherry (Healthy Living Light, UK)8 67±15 200 8
844 Yoghurt, bourbon vanilla (Finest, UK)8 64±14 200 20
845 Yoghurt, champagne rhubarb (Finest, UK)8 49±12 200 19
846 Yoghurt, Devonshire fudge (Finest, UK)8 37±7 200 13
847 Yoghurt, Greek style, honey topped (UK)8 36±7 200 12
848 Yoghurt, lemon curd (Finest, UK)8 67±14 200 30
849 Yoghurt, orange blossom (Finest, UK)8 42±11 200 17
850 Yoghurt, peach & apricot (Healthy Living Light, UK)8 28±6 200 5
851 Yoghurt, peach melba (Value, UK)8 57±5 200 18
852 Yoghurt, raspberry (Healthy Living Light, UK)8 43±8 200 7
853 Yoghurt, red fruit: Morello cherry8 35±6 200 4
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)8
854 Yoghurt, red fruit: raspberry and black cherry 37±8 200 5
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)8
855 Yoghurt, red fruit: raspberry and cranberry 42±12 200 11
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)8
856 Yoghurt, Scottish raspberry (Finest, UK)8 32±7 200 13
857 Yoghurt, strawberry (Healthy Living Light, UK)8 30±6 200 5
858 Yoghurt, strawberry and cream (Finest, UK)8 41±6 200 16
859 Yoghurt, summer fruit: apricot8 11±4 200 1
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)
860 Yoghurt, summer fruit: peach and vanilla8 26±7 200 3
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)
861 Yoghurt, summer fruit: raspberry8 28±5 200 3
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)
862 Yoghurt, summer fruit: strawberry8 36±9 200 5
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)
863 Yoghurt, toffee (Healthy Living Light, UK)8 41±11 200 7
864 Yoghurt, tropical fruit: guava and passionfruit8 24±7 200 3
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)
865 Yoghurt, tropical fruit: mango8 32±8 200 4
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)
866 Yoghurt, tropical fruit: peach and apricot8 27±6 200 3
  (Healthy Living Light, UK)
867 Yoghurt, tropical pineapple8 (Healthy Living Light, UK) 38±7 200 5
868 Yoghurt, Valencia orange8 (Finest, UK) 34±7 200 11
869 Yoghurt, vanilla8 (Healthy Living Light, UK) 47±13 200 7
870 Yoghurt, white peach8 (Finest, UK) 54±12 200 17
 Yoghurt, frozen, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  brand (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
871 Mochaccino frozen yoghurt 51±5 125 11
872 Strawberry Banana frozen yoghurt 55±6 125 11
873 Vanilla frozen yoghurt 46±5 125 10
 mean of three foods 51 125 11
 Low-fat yoghurt
874 Low-fat, fruit, aspartame, SkiTM 14±4 200 2
  (Dairy Farmers, Australia)
875 Low-fat, fruit, sugar, SkiTM (Dairy Farmers, Australia) 33±7 200 10
876 Low-fat, sugar-sweetened, strawberry classic, 33±5 200 10
  YoplaitTM Lite (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
877 Low-fat (0.9%), fruit, wild strawberry (Ski d'liteTM, 31±14 200 9
  Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia)
878 Low-fat, Nestlé Diet Blueberry (Nestlé, Australia) 32±4 200 4
879 Low-fat, Nestlé Diet Mixed Berry (Nestlé, Australia) 28±4 200 3
880 Low-fat, Nestlé Diet Peaches & Cream 28±3 200 3
  (Nestlé, Australia)
881 Low-fat, apricot (UK)8 42±6 200 12
882 Low-fat, black cherry (UK)8 41±5 200 11
883 Low-fat, hazelnut (UK)8 53±9 200 15
884 Low-fat, peach melba (Value, UK)8 56±11 200 16
885 Low-fat, raspberry (UK)8 34±6 200 10
886 Low-fat, strawberry (UK)8 61±11 200 18
 Vaalia®, low-fat, sugar sweetened yoghurt
  (Pauls Ltd, Australia)
887 Heavenly Honey flavor 32±4 200 11
888 Lemon Creme flavor 43±6 200 17
889 Luscious Berries flavor 29±2 200 9
890 Passionfruit flavor 32±3 200 11
891 Strawberry flavor 28±3 200 8
 mean of five foods 33±3 200 11
 Natural yoghurt
892 Fat-Free Natural yoghurt 19±5 200 2
  (Jalna Dairy Foods, Australia)25
893 Greek Style yoghurt, Premium blend 12±4 200 1
  (Jalna Dairy Foods, Australia)25
894 Leben European Style yoghurt 11±5 200 1
  (Jalna Dairy Foods, Australia)25
895 Yoghurt, low fat, natural (UK)8 35±10 200 12
 mean of four foods 19±6 200 3
 Non-fat yoghurt
896 Passionfruit yoghurt, fat-free (Jalna Dairy Foods, 27±4 200 5
  Australia)
 Diet VaaliaTM, sweetened with acesulfame K
  and Splenda
897 Diet VaaliaTM, exotic fruits (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8 23±2 200 4
898 Diet VaaliaTM, mango (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8 23±2 200 3
899 Diet VaaliaTM, mixed berry (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8 25±3 200 3
900 Diet VaaliaTM, strawberry (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8 23±2 200 3
901 Diet VaaliaTM, vanilla (Pauls Ltd, Australia)8 23±2 200 3
 mean of five foods 23±1 200 3
 SkiTM, non-fat, sugar sweetened
902 SkiTM, Honey flavor (Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia) 40±2 200 14
903 SkiTM, vanilla flavor (Dairy Farmers Ltd, Australia) 40±4 200 12
 YoplaitTM, non-fat, artificially sweetened yoghurts
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
904 YoplaitTM No Fat berry fruit flavors8 16±3 200 2
905 YoplaitTM No Fat Strawberry Classic flavor8 19±3 200 2
906 YoplaitTM No Fat tropical fruit flavors8 20±4 200 3
907 YoplaitTM No Fat yoghurt, various flavors8 18±3 200 3
 mean of four foods 18±1 200 2
 Probiotic yoghurt
908 Yoghurt, probiotic, prune (UK)8 44±10 200 13
909 Yoghurt, probiotic, raspberry (UK)8 45±10 200 13
910 Yoghurt, probiotic, strawberry (UK)8 52±14 200 15
 mean of three foods 47 200 14
 Reduced-fat yoghurt
911 Reduced-fat, VaaliaTM, apricot & mango 26±4 200 8
  (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8
912 Reduced-fat, VaaliaTM, french vanilla 26±4 200 3
  (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8
913 Reduced-fat, Extra-LiteTM, strawberry 28±4 200 9
  (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8
914 Reduced-fat, strawberry (Czech Republic) 43±5 200 14
915 Reduced-fat, YoplaitTM Lite, berry fruit flavors 25±3 200 9
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
916 Reduced-fat, YoplaitTM Lite, tropical fruit flavors 37±3 200 12
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
917 Reduced-fat, YoplaitTM Lite, various flavors 27±2 200 9
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
918 Reduced-fat, YoplaitTM Lite, Fruit Salad flavor 32±5 200 9
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)
 Yoghurt drinks
919 Probiotic drink, cranberry (UK)8 56±9 250 mL 17
920 Probiotic drink, orange (UK)8 30±8 250 mL 10
921 Probiotic drink, original (UK)8 34±5 250 mL 11
922 Vitalise Multivitamin Cultured Milk Fruit Drink 24±5 250 mL 4
  (Jalna Dairy Foods, Australia)
923 Wildberry Yoghourt on the Go 19±4 250 mL 4
  (Jalna Dairy Foods, Australia)
924 Yoghurt drink, reduced-fat, VaaliaTM, tropical 38±4 250 mL 14
  passionfruit (Pauls Ltd., Australia)8
 Soy-based dairy product alternatives
 Soy milks
925 Soy milk, full-fat (3%), Original, 0 mg calcium, 44±5 250 mL 8
  with maltodextrin, (So Natural Foods, Australia)8
926 Soy milk, full-fat (3%), Calciforte, 120 mg calcium, 36±4 250 mL 6
  with maltodextrin (So Natural Foods, Australia)8 (2000)
927 Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 120 mg calcium, Calciforte 41±4 250 mL 6
  (So Natural Foods, Australia)8 (2006)
928 Soy milk, Vitasoy® Organic (National Foods Ltd, 43±3 250 mL 7
  Australia)8
929 Soy milk, Vitasoy® So Milky Regular 21±5 250 mL 2
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)8
930 Soy milk, low-fat (0.7%), Vitasoy® Light Original 45±5 250 mL 4
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)8
931 Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), Vitasoy® So Milky Lite 17±3 250 mL 1
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)8
932 Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), 120 mg calcium, Light, 44±3 250 mL 8
  containing maltodextrin (So Natural Foods, Australia)8
933 Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.8%), 120 mg calcium, Vitasoy® 18±3 250 mL 2
  Premium Vitality+ (National Foods Ltd, Australia)8
 Soy milk drinks
934 Soy Beverage, Chocolate flavored, President's Choice® 40±5 250 mL 11
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
935 Soy Beverage, Original flavored, President's Choice® 15±4 250 mL 1
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
936 Soy Beverage, Vanilla flavored, President's Choice® 28±3 250 mL 4
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
937 Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), Vitasoy® Lush, 31±3 250 mL 6
  Chocolate (National Foods Ltd, Australia)8
938 Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), Vitasoy® Lush, Vanilla 31±3 250 mL 5
  (National Foods Ltd, Australia)8
939 Soy smoothie drink, banana, 1% fat 30±3 250 mL 7
  (So Natural Foods, Australia)8
940 Soy smoothie drink, chocolate hazelnut, 1% fat 34±3 250 mL 8
  (So Natural Foods, Australia)8
941 Up & GoTM, cocoa malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal 43±5 250 mL 11
  liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium, Australia)8
942 Up & GoTM, original malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal 46±5 250 mL 11
  liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium, Australia)8
943 XpressTM, chocolate (soy bean, cereal, legume extract 39±2 250 mL 13
  drink with fructose)8 (So Natural Foods, Australia)
 Soy yoghurt
944 Soy yoghurt, peach and mango, 2% fat, sugar 50±3 200 13
  (So Natural Foods, Australia)8
 
 FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS
 Apples, raw
945 Apple, Golden Delicious (Canada) 39±3 120 6
946 Apple, dried (Australia) 29±5 60 11
947 Sliced Apples, canned, solid packed without juice 42±2 120 4
  (Langeberg and Ashton Foods Pty Ltd, South Africa)
 Apricots
948 Apricots, raw, NS (Australia) 34±3 120 3
949 Apricot Halves canned in fruit juice (Langeberg 51±5 120 6
  and Ashton Foods Pty Ltd, South Africa)
 Apricots, dried
950 Apricots, dried (Australia) 30±7 60 8
951 Apricots, dried, ready to eat (UK) 31±6 60 7
952 Apricots, dried, ready to eat, bite size (UK) 32±7 60 7
 mean of three studies 31 60 7
953 Apricot dried fruit snack (Australia) 42±3 15 5
954 Apricot & apple fruit strips, gluten-free 29±6 20 5
  (Freedom Foods, Australia)
 Apricot jam/fruit spread
955 Apricot 100% Pure Fruit spread, no added sugar 43±6 30 7
  (Freedom Foods, Australia)
956 Apricot 100% Fruit Spread, CotteesTM brand 50±6 30 9
  (Cadbury Schweppes, Australia)
957 Apricot fruit spread, reduced sugar (Glen Ewin Jams, 55±7 30 7
  Para Hills, Australia)
958 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Twice the Fruit 56±8 30 7
  Apricot spread (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 mean of four studies 51±3 30 8
 Banana, raw
959 Banana (Australia) 47±5 120 11
960 Banana (Canada) 62±9 120 16
961 Banana (South Africa) 70±5 120 16
962 Banana, processed fruit fingers, Heinz KidzTM 61±11 30 12
  (H J Heinz, Malvern, Australia)
963 Blackberry 100% Fruit Spread, CotteesTM brand 46±5 30 8
  (Cadbury Schweppes, Australia)
964 Blackberry Sour Buzz dried fruit leather, Sunripe 35±5 30 7
  School Straps (Windsor Farm Foods, Australia)
965 Bluberries, wild (Wild Blueberries Association, Canada) 53±7 100 5
 Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
966 Breadfruit, peeled, boiled 10 min (Jamaica) 47±5 120 10
967 Breadfruit, peeled, boiled 26 min (Jamaica) 60±9 120 17
968 Breadfruit, raw (Australia)8 68 120 18
969 Breadfruit, roasted on preheated charcoal (Jamaica) 72±8 120 20
 mean of four studies 62±6 120 16
970 Cherries, dark, raw, pitted (Australia)25 63±6 120 9
971 Cherries, sour, pitted, canned (Always Fresh brand, 41±5 120 9
  Australia)8
972 Custard apple, raw, flesh only (Australia) 54±2 120 10
 Dates
973 Dates, Barhi variety, dried and vacuum packed 50±6 60 22
  (United Arab Emirates)
974 Dates, Bo ma'an variety, dried and vacuum packed 31±5 60 14
  (United Arab Emirates)
975 Dates, Khalas (Rutab, soft early ripened) variety 47±5 60 14
  (United Arab Emirates)
976 Dates, Khalas (Tamer, sun dried stored in traditional 45±8 60 20
  Bedu manner) variety (United Arab Emirates)
977 Dates, Khalas variety, dried and vacuum packed 36±3 60 16
  (United Arab Emirates)
 mean of five studies 42±4 60 18
978 Divine Date spread (Buderim Ginger, Buderim, QLD, 29±4 25 5
  Australia)
979 Figs, dried, tenderised, Dessert Maid brand 61±6 60 16
  (Ernest Hall & Sons, Sydney, Australia)
980 Fruit Salad canned in fruit juice, containing peach, 54±3 120 6
  pear, apricot, pineapple and cherries
  (Langeberg and Ashton Foods Pty Ltd, South Africa)
 Ginger
981 Ginger, candied, sucrose-free 10±4 25 2
  (Buderim Ginger, Australia)
982 Ginger Spread, sucrose-free 10±2 25 2
  (Buderim Ginger, Australia)
983 Original Ginger marmalade 50±7 25 9
  (Buderim Ginger, Australia)
984 Grapes, black, Waltham Cross (Australia) 59 120 11
985 Grape Nectar (Chateau Barrosa, Lyndoch, 52±5 20 8
  SA, Australia)
986 Grapefruit, ruby red segments, canned in juice 47±5 120 10
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
987 Kiwi fruit (Australia)8 58±7 120 7
988 Lychee, canned in syrup and drained, 79±8 120 16
  Narcissus brand (China)
989 Mandarin segments, canned in juice 47±2 120 6
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
990 Mango (Mangifera indica) (Australia)8 51±3 120 8
991 Mango, low-fat frozen fruit dessert, FrutiaTM 42±3 100 10
  (Weis Frozen Foods, Toowong, Australia)
992 Mixed fruit, dried (Value, UK) 60±7 60 24
993 Nectarines, raw (Australia)8 43±6 120 4
 Oranges, raw
994 Oranges, type NS (South Africa) 33±6 120 3
995 Oranges, type NS (Canada) 40±3 120 4
995 Orange & Grapefruit segments, canned in juice 53±4 120 10
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
 Orange Marmalade
996 Marmalade, orange 100% Pure Fruit spread, 27±3 30 4
  no added sugar (Freedom Foods, Australia)
997 Marmalade, orange (Australia) 48±9 30 9
998 Breakfast Marmalade 100% Fruit Spread, 55±4 30 10
  CotteesTM brand (Cadbury Schweppes, Australia)
 mean of three foods 43 30 8
 Paw paw/papaya, raw
999 Paw paw (Carica papaya (Australia)8 56±6 120 5
 Peaches
1000 Peach, canned in natural juice (Goulburn Valley 30±4 120 3
  brand, Ardmona Foods, Mooroopna, Australia)
1001 Peach, canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd, 45±6 120 5
  Shepparton, Australia)
1002 Peach, canned in natural juice (SPC Ardmona Ltd, 46±4 120 6
  Shepparton, VIC, Australia)
 mean of three studies 40 120 5
1003 Peach, canned in heavy syrup (Letona Foods, 58±11 120 9
  Hawthorn East, VIC, Australia)
1004 Peach, canned in heavy syrup (Homebrand, 64±3 120 12
  Yennora, NSW, Australia)
1005 Peach, canned in reduced-sugar syrup, SPC Lite 62±9 120 11
  (SPC Ltd, Australia)
1006 Peach & Grapes, canned in natural fruit juice 46±5 120 6
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
1007 Peach & Pineapple, canned in natural fruit juice 45±4 120 6
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
1008 Peach, dried (UK) 35±5 60 8
1009 Peach & pear fruit strips, gluten-free 29±6 20 3
  (Freedom Foods, Australia)
 Pears
1010 Pear halves, canned in reduced-sugar syrup, SPC Lite 25±6 120 4
  (SPC Ltd, Australia)
1011 Pear halves, canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd, Australia) 43±15 120 5
1012 Pear, dried (UK) 43±15 60 12
 Pineapple
1013 Pineapple, raw (Australia)8 66±7 120 6
1014 Pineapple pieces, canned in fruit juice 43±4 120 8
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
1015 Pineapple pieces, canned in natural fruit juice 55±5 120 10
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
1016 Pineapple & Papaya pieces, canned in natural juice 53±7 120 9
  (Woolworths Limited, Australia)
1017 Prunes, pitted (Sunsweet Growers Inc., Yuba City, USA) 29±4 60 10
 Raisins
1018 Raisins (Canada) 64±11 60 28
1019 Raspberry 100% Pure Fruit spread, no added sugar 26±4 25 3
  (Freedom Foods, Australia)
1020 Raspberry 100% Fruit Spread, CotteesTM brand 46±5 30 8
  (Cadbury Schweppes, Australia)
 Rockmelon/Cantaloupe
1021 Rockmelon/Cantaloupe, raw (Australia)8 65±9 120 4
1022 Rockmelon/Cantaloupe, raw (Australia)7 70 120 4
1023 Strawberries, fresh, raw (Australia)8 40±7 120 1
1024 Strawberry jam (Australia) 51±10 30 10
1025 Strawberry100% Fruit Spread, CotteesTM brand 46±5 30 8
  (Cadbury Schweppes, Australia)
1025 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Twice the Fruit 69±12 25 6
  Spread - Strawberry & Rhubarb
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1026 Strawberry fruit leather (Stretch Island Fruit 29±4 30 7
  CompanyTM, Washington, USA)
1027 Strawberry & wildberry dried fruit leather, Sunripe 40 30 8
  School Straps (Windsor Farm Foods, Australia)
1028 Strawberry processed fruit bars, Real Fruit Bars 90±12 30 23
  (Uncle Toby's, Australia)
 Sultanas
1029 Sultanas (Australia) 56±11 60 26
1030 Sultanas (Value, UK) 56±6 60 23
1031 Sultanas (UK) 58±11 60 24
 mean of three studies 57 60 25
1032 Tropical dried fruit snack (Australia) 41±3 15 5
1033 Vitari, wild berry, non-dairy, frozen fruit dessert 59±8 100 12
  (Nestlé, Australia)
 Watermelon
1034 Watermelon, raw (Australia)8 72±13 120 4
1035 Watermelon, raw (Australia)7 80±3 120 5
1036 Wild berry dried fruit snack (Australia) 35±4 15 4
 
 FRUIT JUICES
 Apple juice
1037 Apple juice, unsweetened, reconstituted 39±5 250 mL 10
  (Berrivale Orchards Ltd, Berri, Australia)
1038 Apple juice, Granny Smith, unsweetened (Australia) 44±3 250 mL 13
1039 Apple juice, pure, clear, unsweetened (The Wild 44±2 250 mL 13
  About Fruit Company, Wandin, VIC, Australia)
1040 Apple juice, pure, cloudy, unsweetened 37±3 250 mL 10
  (The Wild About Fruit Company, Australia)
1041 Apple and blackcurrant juice, no added sugar 45±4 250 mL 11
  (Berri Ltd, Australia)
1042 Apple and cherry juice, pure, unsweetened 43±3 250 mL 14
  (The Wild About Fruit Company, Australia)
1043 Apple and mango juice, pure, unsweetened 47±5 250 mL 16
  (The Wild About Fruit Company, Australia)
1044 Apple, pineapple and passionfruit juice, unsweetened 48±5 250 mL 16
  (The Wild About Fruit Company, Australia)
1045 Carrot juice, freshly made (Sydney, Australia)8 43±3 250 mL 10
 Cranberry juice
1046 Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray, 52±3 250 mL 16
  Melbourne, Australia)
1047 Cranberry juice cocktail 68±3 250 mL 24
  (Ocean Spray Inc., Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, USA)
1048 Cranberry juice drink, Ocean Spray® 56±4 250 mL 16
  (Gerber Ltd., Bridgewater, Somerset, UK)
 mean of three studies 59 250 mL 19
 Orange juice
1049 Orange juice (Canada) 46±6 250 mL 12
1050 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Oh-Mega j Orange 48±4 250 mL 14
  juice beverage (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1051 Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted concentrate, 53±6 250 mL 9
 Quelch brand (Berri Ltd, Australia)
1052 Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted concentrate, 54±5 250 mL 11
  Mr Juicy brand (Berri Ltd, Australia)
 mean of four studies 50±2 250 mL 12
1053 Prune juice (Golden Circle, Australia) 43±3 250 mL 15
 SuperJuice (Berri Ltd, Australia)
1054 SuperJuice Greenzone, containing apple, orange and 47±3 250 mL 12
  pineapple juice
1055 SuperJuice Immune, containing apple juice, 47±3 250 mL 12
  pineapple juice and guava puree
1056 SuperJuice Kickstart, containing apple juice, 39±3 250 mL 11
  blueberry puree and banana puree
 Tomato juice
1057 Tomato juice, low sodium, President's Choice® Blue 23±6 250 mL 2
  MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1058 Tomato juice, no added sugar (Campbell's Soup 33±3 250 mL 3
  Company, Camden, USA)
1059 Tomato juice, canned, no added sugar 38±4 250 mL 4
  (Berri Ltd, Australia)
 mean of three studies 31 250 mL 2
 
 INFANT FORMULA AND WEANING FOODS
 Formula
1060 InfasoyTM, soy-based, milk-free (Wyeth Nutritionals, 55±6 100 mL 4
  Baulkham Hills, NSW, Australia)8
1061 KaricareTM gold starter formula with omega plus 35±5 100 mL 2
  LCP oils (Nutricia, Auckland, New Zealand)8
1062 Nan-1TM infant formula with iron (Nestlé, Australia)8 30±6 100 mL 2
1063 S-26TM infant formula (Wyeth Nutritionals, Australia)8 36±6 100 mL 3
 Weaning Foods
1064 Apple baby food (Czech Republic) 46±5 120 10
1065 FarexTM baby rice, 7 g cereal with 80 g water 95±13 87 6
  (Heinz Wattie's Ltd., Malvern, Australia)8
 Robinsons First Tastes from 4 months
  (Nutricia, Wells, UK)
1066 Apple, apricot and banana cereal8 56±8 75 7
1067 Creamed rice porridge8 59±8 75 5
1068 Rice pudding8 59±6 75 6
 Heinz for Baby from 4 months
  (Heinz Wattie's Ltd, Australia)
1069 Chicken and noodles with vegetables, strained8 67±11 120 5
1070 Sweetcorn and rice8 65±13 120 10
 Porridge/Gruel (Semper Foods AB, Sweden)
1071 Gruel (wholemeal wheat, rye, rice, wheat and oat flour), 47 250 12
  made with whole milk and water24
1072 Porridge (rice & wheat flour), apple-pear flavored, 46 250 14
  made with whole milk and water24
1073 Porridge (wholemeal wheat, oat, rice & wheat flour), 51 250 15
  fruit flavored, made with whole milk and water24
1074 Porridge (rice and wheat flour), made with 54 250 16
  whole milk and water24
1075 Rice porridge, made with whole milk and water24 51 250 15
 
 LEGUMES AND NUTS
 Baked Beans
1076 Baked Beans, canned (Canada) 40±3 150 6
1077 Baked Beans, Heinz Vegetarian baked haricot beans 40 150 6
  (HJ Heinz Company, Dandenong, VIC, Australia)11
1078 Baked Beans in Cheesy Tomato sauce 44±4 150 10
  (HJ Heinz, Australia)
1079 Baked Beans in Barbecue sauce (HJ Heinz, Australia) 47±4 150 13
1080 Baked Beans in Ham sauce (HJ Heinz, Australia) 53±4 150 13
1081 Baked Beans in Mild Curry sauce (HJ Heinz, Australia) 49±5 150 11
1082 Baked Beans in Sweet Chilli sauce (HJ Heinz, Australia) 46±3 150 12
1083 Baked Beans in Tomato sauce (HJ Heinz, Australia) 40±5 150 8
1084 Baked Beans in Tomato sauce, canned, reheated in 57±7 150 13
  microwave for 1.5 min (HJ Heinz, Australia)
 Beans, dried, boiled
1085 Beans, dried, type NS (Italy)24 37 150 11
 Blackeyed beans/peas (Cowpeas), boiled
1086 Blackeyed beans (Canada) 33±4 150 10
1087 Blackeyed peas (Vigna unguiculata), 52 150 16
  boiled (Nigeria)11,14
1088 Blackeyed peas (Vigna unguiculata), boiled, 38 150 11
  consumed with 4.24 g salt (Nigeria)11,14
 Butter Beans
1089 Butter beans, canned, drained, Edgell'sTM brand 36±3 150 8
  (Simplot Australia, Cheltenham, Australia)8
1090 Butter beans, dried, soaked overnight, 26±7 150 5
  boiled 50 min (UK)
1091 Butter beans, dried, soaked overnight, cooked in 28±7 150 6
  salted water (South Africa)
1092 Butter beans (Canada) 36±4 150 7
 mean of four studies 32±3 150 7
1093 Cannellini beans, canned, drained, Edgell'sTM brand 31±5 150 6
  (Simplot Australia, Cheltenham, Australia)8
 Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans, Bengal gram), boiled
1094 Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum Linn), dried, soaked, 10 150 3
  boiled 35 min (Philippines)
1095 Chickpeas (Canada) 36±5 150 11
1096 Chickpeas, canned, drained, Edgell'sTM brand 38±3 150 9
  (Simplot Australia, Australia)8
1097 Chickpea Hommus dip, Chris' Traditional brand 22±5 30 1
  (Capitol Chilled Foods Pty Ltd, ACT, Australia)8
1098 Four bean mix, canned, drained, Edgell'sTM brand 37±5 150 9
  (Simplot Australia, Australia)8
 Haricot/Navy beans
1099 Haricot/Navy beans, boiled (Canada) 31±6 150 9
1100 Haricot/Navy beans (King Grains, Canada) 39 150 12
1101 Haricot beans, home-cooked, soaked overnight, 23 150 7
  boiled 1h in water, baked in tomato sauce 2 h11
  (HJ Heinz, Australia)
 Kidney Beans
1102 Kidney/white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn), 14 150 3
  soaked, boiled 17 min (Philippines)
1103 Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (India) 19 150 5
1104 Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), red, 25 150 6
  soaked 20 min, boiled 70 min (Sweden)
1105 Kidney beans (Canada) 29±8 150 7
 mean of four studies 22±3 150 6
1106 Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), autoclaved 34 150 8
1107 Kidney beans, dried, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, 70±11 150 17
  steamed 1 h (India)14
1108 Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn), soaked 20 150 5
  overnight, cooked 45 min (Philippines)
1109 Dark Red Kidney beans, canned in brine, drained, 43±5 150 10
  Edgell'sTM brand (Simplot Australia, Australia)8
1110 Red Kidney beans, canned, drained, Edgell'sTM brand 36±4 150 9
  (Simplot Australia, Australia)8
1111 Red Kidney beans, dried, soaked overnight, 51±5 150 12
  boiled 60 min (UK)
 Lentils
1112 Lentils, type NS (Canada) 29±3 150 5
1113 Lentils, brown, canned, drained, Edgell'sTM brand 42±5 150 9
  (Simplot Australia, Australia)8
1114 Lentils, green, dried, boiled (Australia) 37±3 150 5
1115 Lentils, red, split, dried, boiled 25 min (UK) 21±7 150 4
1116 Marrowfat peas, dried, boiled (Canada) 47±3 150 9
 Mung beans
1117 Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb), soaked, 31 150 5
  boiled 20 min (Philippines)
1118 Mung bean, fried (Australia) 53±8 150 9
1119 Mung bean, germinated (Australia) 25±4 150 4
1120 Mung bean, pressure cooked (Australia) 42±5 150 7
1121 Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan Linn. Huth.), soaked, 22 150 4
  boiled 45 min (Philippines)
 Pinto beans
1122 Pinto beans, steamed (USA)11,14 33 150 8
1123 Refried Pinto beans, Casa FiestaTM brand 38±3 150 10
  (Capital Foods Pty Ltd, Australia)
 Soya beans
1124 Soya beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 15±5 150 1
1125 Soya beans, dried, boiled (Australia) 20±3 150 1
1126 Soya beans, canned (Canada) 14±2 150 1
1127 Soya beans, canned in brine, drained, Edgell'sTM brand 14±3 150 1
  (Simplot Australia, Australia)7
1128 Split peas, yellow, dried, soaked overnight, 25±6 150 3
  boiled 55 min (UK)
 
 MEAL REPLACEMENT & WEIGHT
 MANAGEMENT PRODUCTS
1129 Chocolate, lactose-free, weight management drink (UK)24 29±10 250 mL 6
1130 Chocolate weight management bar 29±4 31 4
  (Shaklee Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA)
1131 Chocolate weight management drink (UK)24 23±5 250 mL 4
1132 Chocolate weight management drink (UK)24 39±8 250 mL 7
1133 Hazelnut & Apricot bar (Dietworks, 42±7 50 9
  South Yarra, Australia)
1134 InZoneTM nutritious beverage powder, prepared 28±5 250 mL 2
  with water (Indevex AB, Sweden)
1135 Juice Plus+® Complete meal replacement powder, 35±5 250 mL 7
  Dutch chocolate flavor (Australia)
1136 Juice Plus+® Complete meal replacement powder, 32±4 250 mL 6
  French vanilla flavor (Australia)
 Lean CuisineTM frozen convenience meals
 (Nestlé, Australia)
1137 French style chicken with rice, reheated8 36±6 280 17
1138 Honey Soy Beef with Wholemeal Noodles, reheated 53±4 280 19
1139 Burmese Vegetable Curry & rice, reheated 49±6 280 20
1140 Chicken Pomodoro, reheated 46±8 280 17
 L.E.A.NTM products (Usana Inc.,
  Salt Lake City, UT, USA)
1141 L.E.A.N FibergyTM bar, Harvest Oat 45±4 50 13
1142 NutrimealTM, drink powder, Dutch Chocolate 26±3 250 3
1143 L.E.A.N (Life long) NutribarTM, Peanut Crunch 30±4 40 6
1144 L.E.A.N (Life long) NutribarTM, Chocolate Crunch 32±4 40 6
1145 Lemon weight management bar 23±4 31 3
  (Shaklee Corporation, USA)
1146 Lemon weight management bar (UK)24 32±8 50 7
1147 Malt toffee weight management bar (UK)24 43±7 50 10
1148 Peanut Butter weight management bar 22±4 31 3
  (Shaklee Corporation, USA)
1149 ProvideTM nutritious beverage powder, 28±5 250 mL 2
  prepared with water (Indevex AB, Sweden)
1150 ReduceXSTM Chocolate Deluxe formulated meal 10±6 250 mL 1
  replacement powder, prepared with water (Australia)8
1151 SICCON D2TM nutritious beverage powder, prepared 28±5 250 mL 2
  with water (Indevex AB, Sweden)
 SlimFast® weight management products
 SlimFast® bars
1152 SlimFast® chocolate caramel meal replacement bar 54±3 50 18
  (SlimFast Foods Ltd, Slough, Berks, UK)
1153 SlimFast® chocolate meal replacement bar 27±3 50 6
  (SlimFast Foods Ltd, UK)
1154 SlimFast® Chocolate Muesli snack bar 49±6 50 16
  (SlimFast Foods Ltd, UK)
 SlimFast® beverages
1155 SlimFast® Double Chocolate meal replacement powder, 36±4 50 17
  prepared with skim milk (SlimFast Foods Ltd, UK)
1156 SlimFast® French Vanilla ready-to-drink shake 37±5 250 mL 10
  (Slim Fast Foods Company, Englewood, NJ, USA)
1157 SlimFast® meal replacement powder, prepared 35±6 250 mL 12
  with skim milk (Unilever Australasia, Australia)
1158 SlimFast® Strawberry Supreme ready-to-drink shake 33±3 250 mL 10
  (SlimFast Foods Ltd, UK)
 SlimFast® meals
1159 SlimFast® Garden vegetable soup with 20±2 250 mL 5
  peppers and croutons (SlimFast Foods Ltd, UK)
1160 SlimFast® Pasta Florentina meal (SlimFast Foods, UK) 53±5 250 12
1161 Tony Ferguson's Meal Replacement Shake, 22±2 250 mL 6
  all flavors, prepared with water (Australia)
 Worldwide Sport Nutrition reduced-carbohydrate
  products (2000 formulations) (Worldwide Sport
  Nutritional Supplements Inc., Largo, FL, US)
1162 Designer chocolate, sugar-free8 14±3 35 3
 Burn-itTM bars
1163 Chocolate deluxe8 29±3 50 2
1164 Peanut butter8 23±3 50 1
 Pure-proteinTM bars
1165 Chewy choc-chip8 30±4 80 4
1166 Chocolate deluxe8 38±4 80 5
1167 Peanut butter8 22±4 80 2
1168 Strawberry shortcake8 43±4 80 6
1169 White chocolate mousse8 40±4 80 6
 Pure-proteinTM cookies
1170 Choc-chip cookie dough8 25±3 55 3
1171 Coconut8 42±5 55 4
1172 Peanut butter8 37±7 55 3
 
 MIXED MEALS AND CONVENIENCE FOODS
1173 Beef and ale casserole, convenience meal (Finest, UK)8 53±12 300 8
1174 Berrynice Yoghurt Crunch (low fat yoghurt, 43±5 216 15
  honey toasted oats, strawberries and blueberries)
  (McDonald's Australia Ltd, Australia)
 Burgers
1175 Fillet-O-FishTM burger (fish patty, cheese and tartare 66±10 128 20
  sauce on a burger bun)
  (McDonald's Australia Ltd, Australia)
1176 Hamburger (beef patty, ketchup, pickle, onion and 66±8 95 17
  mustard on a burger bun)
  (McDonald's Australia Ltd, Australia)
1177 Lean beef burger (lean beef patty, tomato, mixed 66±4 164 17
  lettuce, cheese, onion and sauce on a burger bun)
  (McDonald's Australia Ltd, Australia)
1178 McChickenTM burger (chicken patty, lettuce, 66±3 186 26
  mayonnaise on a burger bun)
  (McDonald's Australia Ltd, Australia)
1179 Vege Burger (vegetable patty, lettuce, tomato and 59±8 100 14
  sweet chilli sauce on a burger bun) (Australia)
1180 Cannelloni, spinach and ricotta (UK) 15±4 300 8
1181 Chicken korma and peshwari rice, prepared meal 44±6 300 21
  (Finest, UK)
1182 Chicken korma and rice, convenience meal 45±9 300 21
  (Healthy Living, UK)
1183 Chicken nuggets, frozen, reheated in 46±4 100 7
  microwave oven 5 min (Savings,
  Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Australia)
1184 Chicken McNuggetsTM consumed with sweet Thai 55±6 100 12
  chilli sauce (McDonald's, Australia)
1185 Chicken tikka masala and rice, convenience meal 34±7 300 21
  (Healthy Living, UK)
1186 Chilli beef noodles, prepared convenience meal 42±4 300 19
  (Finest, UK)
1187 Chilli con carne, made from haricot beans (Australia) 34±9 300 12
1188 Chow mein, chicken, convenience meal8 55±7 300 13
  (Healthy Living, UK)
1189 Chow mein, chicken, convenience meal 47±7 300 18
  (Serves One, UK)
 ContinentalTM Wholegrain Pasta & Sauce
  (Unilever Australiasia, Epping, NSW, Australia)
1190 Wholegrain Pasta & Sauce, Cheesy, prepared 37±5 200 8
  with water, reduced-fat milk & margarine
1191 Wholegrain Pasta & Sauce, Creamy Carbonara, 39±4 200 9
  prepared with water, reduced-fat milk & margarine
1192 Wholegrain Pasta & Sauce, Creamy Sun-dried Tomato, 43±6 200 10
  prepared with water, reduced-fat milk & margarine
1193 Wholegrain Pasta & Sauce, Parmesan and Cracked 33±5 200 7
  Pepper, prepared with water, reduced-fat milk
  and margarine
1194 Cottage pie (UK) 65±8 300 22
1195 Cumberland fish pie (UK) 40±5 300 12
1196 Cumberland pie (UK) 29±6 300 11
1197 Dates, Khalas (Rutab, soft early ripened) (90 g), 37±5 215 19
  eaten with full-fat plain yoghurt (125 g)
  (United Arab Emirates)
1198 Dates, Khalas (Tamer, dark brown commercial) (60 g), 29±4 185 15
  eaten with full-fat plain yoghurt (125 g)
  (United Arab Emirates)
1199 Dumpling, containing meat and shallots (China) 28±3 100 6
1200 Fajitas, chicken (UK) 42±14 300 18
1201 Greek lentil stew with a bread roll, home made 40±5 360 15
  (Australia)
1202 Instant mashed potato (McCain, McCain Foods, USA), 66 100 22
  eaten with 62 g cheese and 16 g butter (Canada)
1203 Kidney beans, (canned) with bacon and tomatoes 36±8 250 12
  (Australia)
1204 Kidney beans, (cooked from dried beans) with bacon 21±9 250 7
  and tomatoes (Australia)
1205 Lamb moussaka, prepared convenience meal8 35±8 300 10
  (Finest, UK)
 Lasagne
1206 Lasagne, beef (frozen) (UK) 47±7 300 17
1207 Lasagne, meat (Healthy Living, chilled, UK) 28±4 300 11
1208 Lasagne, type NS (Finest, UK) 34±8 300 10
1209 Lasagne, type NS (UK) 25±5 300 8
1210 Lasagne, vegetarian (UK) 20±6 300 10
1211 Lentil and cauliflower cury with rice (Australia) 60±10 300 25
1212 Lentil and cheese pie (Australia) 25±8 300 11
1213 Lentils and vegetables, steamed for 10 min then boiled 35 200 7
  for 10 min consumed with an orange (Chile)
1214 Mushroom stroganoff with rice (UK) 26±6 300 11
1215 Parboiled rice (Uncle Bens Converted, Mars, USA) 27 100 10
  consumed with 68 g cheese and 14 g butter (Canada)
1216 Pasta bake, tomato and mozzarella (UK) 23±4 300 10
 Pasta eaten with other foods
1217 Fusilli pasta twists (Tesco Stores Ltd, UK), boiled 28±3 - -
  10 min in salted water, served with canned tuna (UK)
1218 Fusilli pasta twists (Tesco Stores Ltd, UK), boiled 27±4 - -
  10 min in salted water, served with cheddar cheese (UK)
1219 Fusilli pasta twists (Tesco Stores Ltd, UK), boiled 40±5 - -
  10 min in salted water, served with chilli con carne (UK)
1220 Spaghetti, beans & vegetables steamed for 25 min, 54 200 12
  consumed with an orange (Chile)
1221 Pies, beef, party size (Farmland, 45±6 100 12
  Grocery Holdings, Australia)
 Pizza
1222 Pizza, Super Supreme, pan (11.4% fat) 36±6 100 9
  (Pizza Hut, Sydney, NSW, Australia)
1223 Pizza, Super Supreme, thin and crispy (13.2 % fat) 30±4 100 7
  (Pizza Hut, Australia)
1224 Pizza, Vegetarian Supreme, thin and crispy (7.8 % fat) 49±6 100 12
  (Pizza Hut, Australia)
1225 Stone Baked Whole Wheat Pizza - Vegetable, Pesto 54±4 100 11
  and Feta Cheese, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 Potato with added ingredients
1226 Potato, Estima (50 g), microwaved 6 min then 62±6 139 23
  baked 10 min, served with baked beans (89 g) (UK)
1227 Potato, Estima (50 g), microwaved 6 min then 76±7 112 20
  baked 10 min, served with canned tuna (62 g) (UK)
1228 Potato, Estima (50 g), microwaved 6 min then baked 39±5 112 10
  10 min, served with cheddar cheese (62 g) (UK)
1229 Potato, Estima (50 g), microwaved 6 min then baked 75±7 113 23
  10 min, served with chilli con carne (63 g) (UK)
1230 Potato noodles with meat (China) 17±3 300 8
 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM convenience
  meals (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1231 Barley Risotto with Herbed Chicken (entree) 38±4 300 15
1232 4-Bean Salad, low-fat 13±3 100 1
1233 Cauliflower-Topped Shepherd's Pie (entree) 21±4 300 4
1234 Chicken Curry with Vegetables (entree) 26±8 300 3
1235 Deluxe Cheddar Macaroni & Cheese Dinner 34±6 60 13
1236 Ginger-Glazed Salmon (entree) 41±3 300 18
1237 Lentil and Bean Vegetable Patties 54±5 113 15
1238 Linguine with Shrimp Marinara (entree) 40±6 300 11
1239 Penne with Roasted Vegetables (entree) 39±5 300 17
1240 Rotini with Chicken Pesto (entree) 57±4 300 25
1241 3-Rice Bayou Blend Rice & Beans Sidedish 44±4 50 15
1242 4-Rice Pilaf Rice & Beans Sidedish 46±5 50 16
1243 Rice & Lentils Espana Sidedish 49±5 50 17
1244 Sesame Ginger Chicken with Vegetables (entree) 44±8 300 8
1245 Tomato and Herb Chicken (entree) 29±5 300 9
1246 Vegetable Ancient Grain Vegetable Patties 54±3 113 14
1247 Vegetarian Chili 39±6 300 11
1248 Yellow Curry Chicken (entree) 25±5 300 4
1249 Sausages and mash potato, prepared 61±7 300 25
  convenience meal (UK)
1250 Sirloin chop with mixed vegetables and mashed 66±12 360 35
  potato, homemade (Australia)
1251 Shepherds pie, prepared convenience meal (UK) 66±9 300 29
1252 Spaghetti bolognaise, home made (Australia) 52±9 360 25
1253 Steak and ale with cheddar mash potato8 48±12 300 12
  convenience meal (Finest, UK)
1254 Stuffed bun, with shallots and meat, steamed (China) 39±4 100 12
 Sushi
1255 Sushi, salmon ('I Love Sushi', Sydney, Australia)8 48±8 100 17
1256 Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan) 55 100 20
1257 Sweet and sour chicken with noodles, prepared 41±7 300 21
  convenience meal (Serves One, UK)
1258 Tandoori chicken masala & rice convenience meal 45±5 300 27
  (Finest, UK)
 White bread with accompaniments
1259 Chicken Tandoori Deli Choice white French roll 78±7 270 44
  (tandoori chicken, tomato, lettuce, cucumber, mint &
  yoghurt sauce on a roll) (McDonald's Australia)
1260 Chicken Tandoori Deli Choice Multigrain roll 67±6 270 32
  (tandoori chicken, tomato, lettuce, cucumber, mint &
  yoghurt sauce on a roll) (McDonald's Australia)
1261 Turkey & Cranberry Deli Choice Multigrain roll 63±5 200 34
  (turkey, lettuce, cranberry sauce, cheese and
  mayonnaise on a roll) (McDonald's Australia)
1262 White wheat flour bread, butter, cheese, regular milk 55 200 37
  and fresh cucumber (Sweden)8
1263 White wheat flour bread, butter, yoghurt and 39 200 11
  pickled cucumber (Sweden)8
1264 White bread roll with cheese (UK) 50±5 100 20
1265 White bread (Rustico Panem, Panem, Verona, Italy), 78 36 11
  consumed with 35 g butter11,14
  (Burro Galbani, Cademartori, Lodi, Italy)
1266 White bread (Rustico Panem, Panem, Verona, Italy), 20 36 3
  eaten with 35 g Mazola corn oil (CDC, Milan, Italy)11,14
1267 White bread (Rustico Panem, Panem, Verona, Italy), 20 36 3
  eaten with 35 g olive oil (Olio Sagra, Lucca, Italy)11,14
1268 White bread consumed with margarine, eggs and 58±13 - -
  orange juice
1269 White bread (30 g), toasted, served with 50±6 81 11
  baked beans (51 g) (Hovis, UK)
1270 White bread (30 g), toasted, served with cheddar 35±2 66 5
  cheese (36 g) (Hovis, UK)
1271 White Bread (Wonder Bread, Interstate Bakeries) 74 170 37
  (140 g), consumed with 30 g raw almonds (Canada)
1272 White Bread (Wonder Bread, Interstate Bakeries) 44 200 23
  (140 g), consumed with 60 g raw almonds (Canada)
1273 White bread (Wonder Bread, Interstate Bakeries), 39 160 20
  (100 g), consumed with 60 g raw, unblanched almonds
  (California Almonds, USA)
1274 White Bread (Wonder Bread, Interstate Bakeries) 31 230 16
  (140 g), consumed with 90 g raw almonds (Canada)
 
 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PRODUCTS
1275 Choiced m TM, vanilla (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, 23±4 237 mL 6
  Evansville, USA)
1276 Diasip®, diabetes-specific enteral formula8 12±3 250 mL 3
  (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)
1277 Diason®/Nutrison Diabetes, diabetes-specific enteral8 17±4 250 mL 5
  formula (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)
1278 Diben®, diabetes-specific enteral formula8 22±7 250 mL 5
  (Fresenius Kabi AG, Germany)
1279 Enercal PlusTM, made from powder (Wyeth-Ayerst 61±13 237 mL 24
  International Inc, Madison, USA)
1280 EnsureTM, vanilla (Abbott Australasia, Kurnell, 50±8 237 mL 19
  NSW, Australia)
1281 EnsureTM, vanilla (Abbott Australasia) 48±3 237 mL 16
1282 EnsureTM bar, chocolate fudge brownie 43±3 38 8
  (Abbott Australasia)
1283 EnsureTM Hospital, nutritional supplement powder, 51±5 250 mL 3
  prepared with water (Abbott Nutrition International)
1284 Ensure PlusTM, vanilla (Abbott Australasia) 40±4 237 mL 19
1285 Ensure PuddingTM, old fashioned vanilla 36±4 113 9
  (Abbott Laboratories Inc, Ashland, USA)
1286 Fortimel® enteral formula (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)8 25±8 250 mL 6
1287 Glucerna Chocolate Graham nutritional 20±2 50 5
  supplement bar (Ross Nutrition, Canada)
1288 Glucerna, diabetes-specific enteral formula 15±3 250 mL 4
  (Abbott Laboratories Inc, USA)
 Glucerna enteral nutritional supplement, vanilla
1289 GlucernaTM, vanilla flavor8 19±4 250 mL 4
  (Abbott Nutrition International)
1290 GlucernaTM, vanilla flavor8 20±4 250 mL 4
  (Abbott Nutrition International)
1291 GlucernaTM, vanilla flavor (Ross Nutrition, Canada) 26±2 250 mL 8
1292 GlucernaTM, vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc., USA)8 31±2 250 mL 8
 mean of four studies 24±3 250 mL 6
1293 Glucerna Select, enteral nutritional supplement8 16±3 250 mL 2
  (Abbott Nutrition International)
1294 Glucerna SR, diabetes-specific enteral formula 23±5 250 mL 6
  (Abbott Laboratories Inc., USA)
1295 InslowTM (Abbott Nutrition International -Japan)8 25±3 250 mL 6
1296 JevityTM (Abbott Australasia) 48±3 237 mL 17
1297 JevityTM HiCal, enteral nutritional supplement 59±6 250 mL 27
  (Abbott Nutrition International)
1298 Novasource Diabet®, diabetes-specific enteral formula8 26±5 250 mL 8
  (Novartis Consumer Health SA, Switzerland)
1299 Nutridrink (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)9 25 250 mL 12
1300 Nutridrink Multifiber, containing 2.3 g fiber/100 mL 22 250 mL 10
  (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)9
1301 Nutrison Mutli fiber® enteral formula8 28±10 250 mL 9
  (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)
1302 Nutrison Standard® enteral formula8 34±8 250 mL 10
  (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)
1303 Promote with fiberTM nutritional supplement 49±8 237 mL 16
  (Ross Nutrition, USA)
1304 ProsureTM, ready-to-drink supplement, vanilla flavor 54±5 237 mL 20
  (Abbott Nutrition International)
1305 ProsureTM, ready-to-drink supplement, vanilla flavor 55±5 237 mL 23
  (Abbott Nutrition International)
1306 Resource DiabeticTM, French vanilla (Novartis 34±3 237 mL 8
  Nutrition Corp., Young America, USA)8
1307 Resource DiabeticTM, Swiss chocolate 16±4 237mL 7
  (Novartis, Auckland, New Zealand)
1308 ResourceTM fruit beverage, peach flavor 40±8 237 mL 16
  (Novartis, New Zealand)
1309 ResourceTM thickened orange juice, 47±9 237 mL 18
  honey consistency (Novartis, New Zealand)
1310 ResourceTM thickened orange juice, 54±7 237 mL 19
  nectar consistency (Novartis, New Zealand)
1311 SustagenTM, Dutch Chocolate (Mead Johnson, 31±4 250 mL 13
  Bristol Myers Squibb, Rydalmere, Australia)
1312 SustagenTM Hospital with extra fiber, drink made 33±4 250 mL 15
  from powdered mix (Mead Johnson, Australia)
1313 SustagenTM Instant Pudding, vanilla, made from 27±3 250 13
  powdered mix (Mead Johnson, Australia)
1314 TapionTM nutritonal supplement (Abbott Nutrition 27±5 250 mL 7
  International - Japan)
1315 TwoCal HNTM, high nitrogen nutritional supplement, 55±5 237 mL 27
  vanilla flavor (Abbott Nutrition International)
1316 UltracalTM with fiber (Mead Johnson, 40 237 mL 12
  Evansville, IN, USA)
 
 NUTS
 Cashew nuts
1317 Cashew nuts, salted (Coles Supermarkets, Australia)8 22±5 50 3
1318 Cashew nuts (UK)8 25±6 50 3
1319 Cashew nuts, organic, roasted and salted (UK)8 25±12 50 3
1320 Cashew nut halves (UK)8 27±6 50 3
1321 Cashew nuts, roasted and salted (UK)8 27±9 50 3
 mean of five foods 25±1 50 3
1322 Mixed nuts and raisins (UK) 21±5 50 3
1323 Mixed nuts, roasted and salted (UK) 24±10 50 4
 Peanuts
1324 Peanuts, crushed (South Africa)8 7±4 50 0
 
 PASTA and NOODLES
1325 Buckwheat noodles (China) 59±1 180 25
1326 Buckwheat noodles, instant (China) 53±2 180 22
1327 Corn pasta, gluten-free (Orgran Natural Foods, 68±7 180 31
  Carrum Downs, VIC, Australia) (2007)
1328 Corn pasta, gluten-free 78±10 180 32
  (Orgran Natural Foods, Australia)
 Fettucine, egg
1329 Fettucine, egg (Australia) 32±4 180 15
1330 Fettucine, egg (Mother Earth Fine Foods, 47±6 180 22
  Rowville, Australia)
 Fusilli pasta twists
1331 Fusilli pasta twists (Tesco Stores Ltd, UK), 61±9 180 29
  boiled 10 min in salted water (UK)
1332 Fusilli pasta twists, dry pasta, boiled in 10 min 54±11 180 26
  in unsalted water (UK)
1333 Fusilli pasta twists, tricolour, dry pasta, 51±11 180 23
  boiled 10 min in unsalted water (UK)
1334 Fusilli pasta twists, wholewheat, dry pasta, boiled 55±8 180 23
  10 min in unsalted water (UK)
 mean of four studies 55±2 180 25
1335 Gluten-free pasta, maize starch, boiled 8 min (UK) 54 180 23
1336 Gnocchi, type NS (Latina, Pillsbury Australia Ltd, 68±9 180 33
  Mt. Waverley, Australia)
 Instant noodles
1337 Instant 'two-minute' noodles, Maggi® 46±5 180 11
  (Nestlé, Australia) (1995)
1338 Instant 'two-minute' noodles, Maggi® 48±8 180 12
  (Nestlé, Auckland, New Zealand)
1339 Instant 'two-minute' noodles, Maggi®, all flavors 52±7 180 13
  (Nestlé Australia) (2005)
1340 Instant noodles, all flavors (Woolworths Limited, 52±5 180 11
  Australia)
 mean of four studies 50±2 180 12
 Lasagne pasta sheets, boiled for 10 min
1341 Lasagne sheets, dry pasta, boiled in unsalted water 55±8 180 26
  (Value, UK)
1342 Lasagne, egg, dry pasta, boiled in unsalted water (UK) 53±9 180 23
1343 Lasagne, egg, verdi, dry pasta, boiled in 52±6 180 23
  unsalted water (UK)
 mean of three studies 53 180 24
 Linguine
1344 Thick, durum wheat, white, fresh (Sweden) 43 180 21
1345 Thick, fresh, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w 48 180 23
  monoglycerides, boiled 8 min (Sweden)
1346 Thin, durum wheat (Sweden) 49 180 23
1347 Thin, fresh, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w 61 180 29
  monoglycerides, boiled 3 min (Sweden)
1348 Thin, fresh, durum wheat with 39% w/w egg, (Sweden) 45 180 18
1349 Thin, fresh, with 0.6% w/w monoglycerides and 53 180 22
  30% w/w egg, boiled 3 min (Sweden)
 mean of four studies 52±3 180 23
1350 Mung bean noodles (Longkou beanthread), 39±9 180 18
  dried, boiled (Yantai cereals, China)
1351 Proti pasta, protein-enriched, boiled in water 28±1 180 14
  (Vital Nature Inc, San Antonio, TX, USA)
1352 Ravioli, durum wheat flour, meat filled, boiled (Australia) 39±1 180 15
 Rice noodles/pasta
1353 Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, 61±6 180 23
  Bangkok, Thailand)
1354 Rice noodles, freshly made, boiled 40±4 180 15
  (Sydney, NSW, Australia)
1355 Rice noodles made from IR42 (high amylose) 41 180 18
  rice flour, boiled for 22 min (Philippines)
1356 Rice pasta, gluten-free (Freedom Foods, Australia) 51 180 24
1357 Rice pasta, brown, boiled 16 min 92±8 180 35
  (Rice Grower's Co-op, Australia)
1358 Rice and maize pasta, gluten-free, Ris'O'Mais 76±6 180 37
  (Orgran Foods, Australia)
 Spaghetti
1359 Spaghetti, gluten-free, rice and Hi-Maize 51±5 180 25
  (high-amlyose) flour (Freedom Foods, Australia)
1360 Spaghetti, gluten-free, rice and split pea, 68±9 220 19
  canned in tomato sauce
1361 Spaghetti, 75% durum wheat flour and 25% chickpea 41 180 19
  flour boiled 10 min (Rio Dulce SA, Guadalajara, Spain)
1362 Spaghetti, soy (Revival Soy®, Physicians 47±7 180 17
  Pharmaceuticals, Inc, USA)8
 Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 10-15 min
1363 White, boiled for 10 min (Rio Dulce SA, 51 180 24
  Guadalajara, Spain)
1364 White, durum wheat, boiled 10 min in salt water 58 180 28
  (Barilla, Parma, Italy)15
1365 White, durum wheat flour, boiled 12 min 47 180 23
  (Starhushalls, Kungsornen AB, Jarna, Sweden)
1366 White, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, 53 180 25
  boiled 12 min (Sweden)
1367 White, boiled 15 min in salted water 44±3 180 21
  (Unico, Concord, ON, Canada)
1368 100% durum semolina spaghetti, boiled 15 min 41 180 19
  (Unico, Canada)
 mean of six studies 49±3 180 24
 Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 20 min
1369 White, durum wheat, boiled 20 min (Australia) 58±7 180 26
 Spaghetti, white, boiled
1370 White (France) 39 180 18
1371 White (Nishin Shokuhin, Japan) 46 180 22
1372 White (Unico, Canada) 48±3 180 23
1373 White (Vetta, Greens Foods, Glendenning, Australia) 49±7 180 22
1374 White (Canada) 50±8 180 24
 mean of five studies 46±2 180 22
 Spaghetti, white, durum wheat semolina
  (Panzani, Marseilles, France)
1375 Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 11 min 59±15 180 28
1376 Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 16.5 min 65±15 180 31
1377 Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 22 min 46±10 180 22
 mean of three cooking times 57 180 27
 Spaghetti, wholemeal, boiled
1378 Wholemeal (Canada) 42±4 180 17
1379 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Whole Wheat 45±5 180 18
  spaghetti (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1380 Wholemeal pasta, dark durum wheat, boiled 10 min in 58 180 29
  salted water (Melia Ltd, Raisio, Finland)
1381 Spirali, durum wheat, white, boiled to al dente texture 43±10 180 19
  (Vetta, Australia)
1382 Split pea and soya pasta shells, gluten-free 29±6 180 9
  (Orgran Foods, Australia)
1383 Tagliatelle, egg pasta, boiled in water for 7 min (UK) 46±6 180 20
1384 Tagliatelle, egg, boiled (Sainsbury's, UK) 54±5 180 24
1385 Udon noodles, plain, reheated 5 min (Fantastic, 62±8 180 30
  Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia)8
1386 Vermicelli, white, boiled, VettaTM (Australia) 35±7 180 16
1387 Wheat noodle, dried (China) 46±2 180 19
1388 Wheat noodle, fresh (China) 82±7 180 34
 
 SNACK FOODS AND CONFECTIONERY
1389 Brownies, containing coconut flour (Philippines) 42 50 11
1390 Chick Pea chips (Freedom Foods, Australia) 44±7 50 8
1391 Chocolate crinkles, containing coconut flour 43 50 10
  (Philippines)
 Chocolate, dark
1392 Chocolate, dark, Dove® (M&M/Mars, USA) 23±3 50 6
1393 Chocolate, dark with raisins, peanuts and jam 44±5 50 12
  (Czech Republic)
 Chocolate, milk, plain
1394 Chocolate, milk, plain with sucrose (Belgium)8 34±5 50 7
1395 Chocolate, milk (Cadbury's Confectionery, 49±6 50 14
  Ringwood, Australia)
1396 Chocolate, milk, Dove® (Mars Confectionery, 45±8 50 13
  Ballarat, Australia)
1397 Chocolate, milk (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 42±8 50 13
 mean of four studies 43±3 50 12
 Chocolate, milk, artificially sweetened
1398 Chocolate candy, sugar free, Dove® 23±3 50 3
  (M&M/Mars, USA)8
1399 Chocolate, white, Milky Bar® (Nestlé, Australia) 44±6 50 13
1400 CocoaviaTM Chocolate Covered Almonds 21±3 30 2
  (M&M/Mars, USA)8
1401 Combos Snacks Cheddar Cheese Crackers 54±6 50 17
  (M&M/Mars, USA)
1402 Combos Snacks Cheddar Cheese Pretzels 52±6 50 18
  (M&M/Mars, USA)
 Corn chips
1403 Corn chips, plain, salted (DoritosTM original, 42±4 50 11
  Smith's Snack Food Co., Australia) (1998)
1404 Corn chips, plain, salted (DoritosTM original, 72 50 18
  Smith's Snack Food Co., Australia) (1985)
 Chips or Crisps, made from flaxseed, corn or rice
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1405 Flaxseed Tortilla chips, Sea Salt 45±6 50 9
1406 Flaxseed Tortilla chips, Spicy 34±5 50 7
1407 Japanese Tamari Rice & Corn Crisps 91±6 50 35
1408 Japanese Wasabi & Honey Rice & Corn Crisps 82±7 50 32
1409 Thai Curry Rice & Corn Crisps 84±6 50 33
1410 Fruit and nut mix (Finest, UK) 15±3 50 4
 Fruit Bars
1411 Apple Fruit Bar, fat-free, President's Choice® Blue 90±13 40 27
  MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1412 Apricot and Almond bar (UK) 34±6 30 5
1413 Apricot filled fruit bar (pureed dried apricot filling 50±8 50 17
  in wholemeal pastry) (Mother Earth, New Zealand)
1414 Apricot & Yoghurt Healtheries Simple Bar, wheat 40±5 50 10
  and gluten-free (Aussie Bodies Pty. Ltd., Australia)
1415 Berry & Yoghurt Healtheries Simple Bar, wheat 51±4 50 13
  and gluten free (Aussie Bodies Pty. Ltd., Australia)
1416 Berrylicious Trim Bar 46±4 50 8
  (Aussie Bodies Pty. Ltd., Australia)
1417 Blackberry Sour Buzz dried fruit leather, Sunripe 35±5 30 7
  School Straps (Windsor Farm Foods, Australia)
1418 Fig Fruit bar, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM 70±8 40 21
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1419 Fruit & Yogurt Apple Cinnamon Chewy Bars (Soy), 34±3 40 7
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1420 Fruit & Yogurt Cranberry Blueberry Bars (Soy), 33±2 40 7
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1421 Heinz KidzTM Fruit Fingers, banana (HJ Heinz, Australia) 61±11 30 12
1422 Raspberry Fruit bar, fat-free, President's Choice® 74±11 40 23
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1423 Real Fruit Bars, strawberry (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 90±12 30 23
1424 Roll-Ups®, processed fruit snack 99±12 30 24
  (Uncle Toby's, Australia)
1425 Strawberry fruit leather (Stretch Island Fruit 29±4 30 7
  CompanyTM, Washington, USA)
1426 Strawberry & Wildberry dried fruit leather, Sunripe 40 30 8
  school straps (Windsor Farm Foods, Australia)
 Gelato
1427 Gelati, sucrose-free frozen dessert, chocolate flavor 37±5 100 10
  (Alba Foods, Newtown, Australia)
1428 Gelati, sucrose-free frozen dessert, vanilla flavor 39±4 100 11
  (Alba Foods, Newtown, Australia)
 Ice cream and cone
1429 ChocolloTM, low-fat chocolate flavored ice 44±7 100 8
  cream eaten with a plain cone
  (Wendy's Supa Sundaes Pty Ltd, Australia)
1430 ChocolloTM, low-fat chocolate flavored 55±6 110 15
  ice cream eaten with a waffle cone
  (Wendy's Supa Sundaes Pty Ltd, Australia)
1431 Jelly, made from commercial jelly crystals, 53±6 120 10
  Raspberry Razzle flavor
  (Aeroplane Jelly Company, West Ryde, Australia)
 Jelly beans
1432 Jelly beans, assorted colors (Allen's, Nestlé, Australia) 80±8 30 22
1433 Jelly beans, assorted colors (Savings, 76±6 30 21
  Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Australia)
1434 Kudos Milk Chocolate Granola bar with M&M's Milk 52±4 50 18
  Chocolate Mini Baking Bits (M&M/Mars, USA)
1435 Kudos Whole-Grain bars, chocolate chip 62±8 50 20
  (M&M/Mars, Hackettstown, USA)
1436 Kudos Milk Chocolate Granola bars, 45±6 50 14
  Peanut Butter flavor (M&M/Mars, USA)
1437 Licorice, soft (Coles Supermarkets, Australia) 78±11 30 16
1438 Life Savers®, peppermint candy (Nestlé, Australia) 70±6 30 21
1439 M & M's®, peanut (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 33±3 30 6
 Mars Bar®
1440 Mars Bar® (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 62±8 60 25
1441 Mars Bar® (M&M/Mars, USA) 68±12 60 27
1442 Marshmallows (Candy Lane, Australia) 62±6 30 15
1443 Milky Way® bar (M&M/Mars, USA) 62±8 60 26
1444 Milky Way® Lite bar (M&M/Mars, USA) 45±5 45 15
1445 Muesli bar, crunchy, containing dried apricot 61±7 30 13
  (Uncle Toby's, Australia)
1446 Nougat, Jijona (La Fama, Spain)9 32 30 4
1447 Nutella®, chocolate hazelnut spread (Ferrero 33±4 20 4
  Australia, Milson's Point, NSW, Australia) (1997)
1448 Nutella®, chocolate hazelnut spread 30±4 20 4
  (Ferrero Australia, Australia) (2003)
1449 Nutella®, chocolate hazelnut spread 25±4 20 3
  (Ferrero Australia, Australia) (2007)
 mean of three studies 29 20 3
1450 Pirate's Booty, aged white cheddar extruded snack, 70±5 20 8
  made from corn and rice (Robert's American Gourmet,
  Sea Cliff, NY, USA)
 
 Popcorn
1451 Microwave Popping Corn, butter flavor, President's 72±8 20 9
  Choice® Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1452 Microwave Popping Corn, natural flavor, President's 58±8 20 7
  Choice® Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1453 Popcorn (China) 55±1 20 6
1454 Popcorn, plain, cooked in microwave oven 55±7 20 6
  (Green's Foods, Glendenning, NSW, Australia)
1455 Poppin Microwave Popcorn, butter flavor 62±8 20 6
  (Green's Foods, Australia)8
1456 Poppin Lite Microwave Popcorn, butter flavor, 67±8 20 7
  50% reduced fat (Green's Foods, Australia)8
1457 Popcorn, plain, cooked in microwave oven 89 20 10
  (Uncle Toby's, Australia)
 mean of seven studies 65±5 20 7
1458 Pop TartsTM, double choc (Kellogg's, Australia) 70±2 50 24
 Potato crisps
1459 Potato crisps, plain, salted (Canada) 51±7 50 12
1460 Potato crisps, plain, salted (Arnott's, Australia) 57 50 10
1461 Potato crisps (China) 60±2 50 12
 mean of three studies 56 50 12
1462 President's Choice® Blue MenuTM Original and 66±8 50 25
  Tomato Basil Vegetable Sticks
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 Pretzels
1463 Pretzels, oven-baked, traditional wheat flavor 83±9 30 16
  (Parker's, Smith's Snack Food Co., Australia)
1464 Pretzels, oven-baked, traditional wheat flavor, 97% 84±6 30 20
  fat free (Parker's, Smith's Snack Food Co., Australia)
1465 Puffed rice squares (Czech Republic) 77±5 30 19
1466 Skittles® (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 70±5 50 32
 Snack bars
1467 Chewy Chocolate Chip & Marshmallow Granola Bar, 78±6 26 16
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1468 Chewy Cranberry Apple Granola Bar, 58±5 26 12
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1469 Chocolate Healtheries Simple bar, wheat and gluten 35±3 50 10
  free (Aussie Bodies Pty. Ltd., Australia)
1470 Chocolate Raspberry ZingTM bar (Revival Soy®, 47±5 50 2
  Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc., USA)7
1471 CocoaviaTM Chocolate Almond Snack bar 63±7 50 17
  (M&M/Mars, USA)
1472 CocoaviaTM Cripsy Chocolate Bar (M&M/Mars, USA) 33±5 50 8
1473 ExtendBarTM Apple Cinnamon Delight Bar 33±7 50 5
  (ExtendBar, USA)
1474 ExtendBarTM Chocolate Delight Bar 41±6 50 7
  (ExtendBar, USA)
1475 ExtendBarTM Peanut Delight Bar (ExtendBar, USA) 32±5 50 5
1476 Granola bar, containing coconut flour (Philippines) 46 50 9
1477 Munch Peanut Butter bar (M&M/Mars, USA) 27±5 50 5
1478 Oat bar, made from oat flour and bran starch (Canada)9 59 50 14
1479 Peanut Butter Chocolate PalTM bar (Revival Soy®, 52±4 50 13
  Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc., USA)8
1480 60% Whole Wheat Fig Fruit bar, President's 72±6 50 26
  Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1481 Slimfast® Meal Options bar, rich chocolate brownie 64±13 50 21
  (SlimFast Foods Co, West Palm Beach, USA)
1482 Snack bar, Apple Cinnamon (Con Agra Inc., 40±8 50 12
  Omaha, NE, USA)
1483 Snack bar, Peanut Butter and Choc-Chip 37±6 50 10
  (Con Agra Inc., USA)
1484 Trim bar, Chocorama 31±3 50 4
  (Aussie Bodies Pty. Ltd., Australia)
1485 Trim Bar, Mocha flavor (Aussie Bodies 25±3 50 3
  Pty. Ltd., Australia)
 Snickers Bar®
1486 Snickers Bar® (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 41±5 60 15
1487 Snickers Bar® (M&M/Mars, USA) 43±4 60 15
1488 Snickers Bar® (M&M/Mars, USA)9 68 60 23
 mean of three studies 51 60 18
 Soy Joy Fruit & Soy Bar® (Otsuka Pharmaceutical
  Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan)
1489 Apple Soy Joy Bar 19±2 30 2
1490 Apricot Soy Joy Bar 27±4 30 3
1491 Chocolate Orange Soy Joy Bar 41±7 30 5
1492 Mango Coconut Soy Joy Bar 28±2 30 3
1493 Plum + Fe Soy Joy Bar 25±3 30 3
1494 Plum + Folic acid Soy Joy Bar 27±2 30 3
1495 Raisin Almond Soy Joy Bar 28±4 30 3
1496 Sanzashi Soy Joy Bar 29±5 30 4
1497 Strawberry Soy Joy Bar 33±2 30 4
1498 SunshineTM soy protein chips, lightly salted8 87±8 50 23
  (Revival Soy®,Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc., USA)
1499 Tropical fruit and nut mix (Finest, UK) 49±7 50 14
1500 TwistiesTM, cheese-flavored, extruded snack, 74±5 50 22
  rice and corn (Smith's Snackfood Co., Australia)
1501 Twix® Cookie Bar, caramel (M&M/Mars, USA) 44±6 60 17
1502 Yummiees lollies (Allseps Pty. Ltd., Australia) 43±3 15 2
 
 SPORTS (ENERGY) BARS
1503 Clif bar, Chocolate Brownie Energy bar 57±6 65 22
  (Clif Bar Inc., Berkeley, USA)
1504 Performance Chocolate Energy bar (Power Bar, USA) 53±6 65 22
 Power Bar® (Powerfood Inc., Berkeley, USA)
1505 Power Bar®, chocolate 58±5 65 24
1506 Power Bar®, chocolate9 53 65 22
1507 Ironman PR bar®, chocolate (PR Nutrition, 39 65 10
  San Diego, CA, USA)9
 SmartZone Nutrition Bar (Hershey's Food
  Corporation, Hershey, PA, USA)
1508 SmartZone Chocolate flavor 11±4 50 2
1509 SmartZone Chocolate flavor 16±3 50 3
1510 SmartZone Crunchy Blueberry flavor 15±3 50 3
1511 SmartZone Crunchy Chocolate Brownie flavor 23±5 50 4
1512 SmartZone Crunchy Chocolate Caramel flavor 16±4 50 3
1513 SmartZone Crunchy Chocolate Peanut Butter flavor 14±3 50 3
1514 SmartZone Crunchy Key Lime flavor 14±3 50 3
1515 SmartZone Peanut Butter flavor 18±2 50 3
 Snickers® Marathon Energy Bar
  (M&M/Mars, USA)
1516 Chewy Chocolate Peanut flavor 36±5 50 9
1517 Cookies & Creme flavor 50±4 50 14
1518 Multi Grain Crunch flavor 50±4 50 14
1519 Peanut Butter flavor 34±5 50 8
 Snickers® Marathon Low Carb Lifestyle
  Energy Bar (M&M/Mars, USA)
1520 Chocolate Fudge Brownie flavor 20±4 50 2
1521 Peanut Butter flavor 21±4 50 2
 Snickers® Marathon Nutrition Bar
  (M&M/Mars, USA)
1522 Dark Chocolate Crunch flavor 49±6 25 5
1523 Honey & Roasted Almond flavor 41±3 25 4
 Snickers® Marathon Protein Performance Bar
  (M&M/Mars, USA)
1524 Caramel Nut Rush flavor 26±3 50 6
1525 Chocolate Nut Burst flavor 32±4 50 6
 SoLo GI Nutrition Bar (New Era Nutrition Inc,
  Alberta, Canada)
1526 SoLo GI Berry Bliss Nutrition bar 29±5 50 6
1527 SoLo GI Chocolate Charger Nutrition bar 28±2 50 6
1528 SoLo GI Lemon Lift Nutrition bar 29±5 50 6
1529 SoLo GI Mint Mania Nutrition bar 23±3 50 5
1530 SoLo GI Peanut Power Nutrition bar 27±4 50 5
 SoLo GI Snack Bar (New Era Nutrition Inc,
  Alberta, Canada)
1531 SoLo GI Berry Bliss Snack bar 29±5 25 3
1532 SoLo GI Chocolate Charger Snack bar 28±2 25 3
1533 SoLo GI Lemon Lift Snack bar 29±5 25 3
1534 SoLo GI Mint Mania Snack bar 23±3 25 2
1535 SoLo GI Peanut Power Snack bar 27±4 25 3
1536 VO2 Max Chocolate Energy bar (M&M/Mars, USA) 49±8 65 22
1537 ZonePerfect Nutrition bar, Double Chocolate flavor 44±7 50 8
  (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, USA)
 
 SOUPS
1538 Barley Vegetable Instant soup, low-fat, 41±3 250 11
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1539 Carrot soup, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM 35±4 250 5
  Soupreme (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1540 Chicken and mushroom soup (UK)24 46±6 250 8
1541 Chicken and mushroom soup (UK)24 69±14 250 13
1542 Chicken & Vegetable with wholegrain pasta, Country 43±3 250 5
  Ladle® (Campbell's Soups, Homebush, NSW, Australia)8
1543 Garden vegetable soup with peppers and croutons, 20±2 250 5
  SlimFast® (SlimFast Foods Ltd, Slough, Berks, UK)
1544 Indian Lentil Instant soup, low-fat, 62±7 250 12
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1545 Lentil, ready-to-serve, President's Choice® Blue 57±9 250 11
  MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 Minestrone
1546 Minestrone, condensed, prepared with water 48±6 250 18
  (Campbell's Soup Company, Camden, NJ, USA)
1547 Minestrone, Traditional, Country Ladle® 39±3 250 7
  (Campbell's Soups, Australia)8
1548 Minestrone & Pasta Instant soup, low-fat, 54±3 250 22
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 mean of three studies 47 250 15
1549 Mushroom Barley, ready-to-serve, President's Choice® 45±10 250 3
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1550 Pasta & Fagioli soup, ready-to-serve, President's 52±8 250 10
 Choice® Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1551 Pumpkin Soup, creamy, Heinz® Very SpecialTM, with 76±7 250 14
  pumpkin, cream, potatoes (Heinz Wattie's Ltd, Australia)
1552 Spicy Black Bean Instant soup, low-fat, President's 57±5 250 18
  Choice® Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1553 Spicy Black Bean with Vegetables soup, 46±5 250 12
  President's Choice® Blue MenuTM
  (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1554 Spicy Thai Instant soup, low-fat, President's Choice® 56±4 250 17
  Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1555 Tomato soup, condensed, prepared with water 52±4 250 15
  (Campbell's Soup Company, Camden, NJ, USA)
1556 Tomato & Herb, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM 47±5 250 7
  Soupreme (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1557 Vegetable soup (UK)24 60±12 250 11
1558 Vegetable Couscous Instant soup, low-fat, President's 57±4 250 19
  Choice® Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1559 Vegetarian Chili Instant soup, low-fat, President's 36±4 250 10
  Choice® Blue MenuTM (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
1560 Winter Squash, President's Choice® Blue MenuTM 41±4 250 5
  Soupreme (Loblaw Brands Limited, Canada)
 
 SUGARS AND SYRUPS
 Blue Agave cactus nectar, high-fructose
1561 Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 90% fructose 11±1 10 1
  (Western Commerce Corp., City of Industry, CA, USA)8
1562 Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 97% fructose 10±1 10 1
  (Western Commerce Corp., USA)8
1563 Premium Agave nectar (Sweet Cactus Farms, USA) 19±4 10 2
 mean of three studies 13 10 1
 Fructose
1564 25 g portion (Sweeten Less, Maximum Nutrition Inc., 11 10 1
  Toronto, Canada)8
1565 50 g portion (Sweeten Less, Canada) 12 10 1
1566 50 g portion (China) 23±1 10 2
 mean of three studies 15 10 2
 Glucose
1567 50 g portion (dextrose) 96 10 10
1568 50 g portion (Bio-Health, Dawson Traders Ltd., 96 10 10
  Toronto, Canada)
1569 50 g portion (Canada) 100 10 10
1570 50 g portion (GlucodinTM glucose tablets, Boots, 102±9 10 10
  North Ryde, NSW, Australia)
1571 25 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada)8 103 10 10
1572 50 g portion (dextrose) 111 10 11
1573 100 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada)8 114 10 11
 mean of seven studies 103±3 10 10
 Glucose consumed with American ginseng
  (Panax quinquefolius L.)
1574 25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min before 76 10 8
  3 g dried ginseng8,27
 Glucose consumed with gum/fiber
1575 46 g Glucose + 15 g apple and orange fiber extract 79±3 10 6
  (FITA, Chatswood, NSW, Australia)
  (total carbohydrate content of drink = 50 g)
1576 50 g Glucose + 14.5 g guar gum 62 10 6
1577 50 g Glucose + 14.5 g oat gum (78% oat β-glucan) 57 10 6
1578 100 g Glucose + 20 g acacia gum15,28 85 10 9
1579 75 g Glucose + 4.24 g salt (Nigeria)11,14 86 10 9
1580 Golden Syrup (Australia) 63±6 25 13
 Honey
1581 Yellow box (46% fructose) (Australia)8 35±4 25 6
1582 Stringy Bark (52% fructose) (Australia)8 44±4 25 9
1583 Red Gum (35% fructose) (Australia)8 46±3 25 8
1584 Iron Bark (34% fructose) (Australia)8 48±3 25 7
1585 Capilano Premium Honey, blend of eucalypt & floral 51±3 25 11
  honeys (Capilano Honey Limited, QLD, Australia)
1586 Yapunya (42 % fructose) (Australia)8 52±5 25 9
1587 Pure (Capilano Honey Ltd., Richlands, Qld, Australia) 58±6 25 12
1588 Leabrook Farms Yellow box honey 60±4 25 13
  (Spring Gully Foods Pty Ltd, SA, Australia)
1589 Commercial Blend (38% fructose) (WA blend, 62±3 25 11
  Capilano Honey Ltd., Australia)8
1590 Salvation Jane (32% fructose) (Australia)8 64±5 25 10
1591 Clover honey, ratio of fructose: glucose, 1.09 69±8 25 15
  (Vazza Farms, Hermiston, OR, USA)
1592 Commercial Blend (28% fructose) (NSW blend, 72±6 25 9
  Capilano Honey Ltd., Australia)8
1593 Buckwheat honey, ratio of fructose:glucose, 1.12 73±6 25 16
  (Vazza Farms, USA)
1594 Cotton honey, ratio of fructose:glucose, 1.03 74±7 25 16
  (Gene Brandi Apiaries, Los Banos, CA, USA)
1595 Honey, NS type (China) 74±4 25 16
1596 Tupelo honey, ratio of fructose:glucose, 1.54 74±8 25 16
  (Tropical Blossom Honey Co, Edgewater, FL, USA)
1597 Honey, NS (Canada)8 87±8 25 18
 mean of seventeen types of honey 61±3 25 12
 Lactose
1598 50 g portion (China) 46±1 10 5
1599 25 g portion (BDH, Poole, UK)8 48 10 5
 Maltose
1600 50 g portion (Canada) 105±12 10 11
1601 50 g portion (China) 105±2 10 11
1602 Maple flavored syrup (Cottee's Foods, Australia) 68±5 25 15
1603 Maple syrup, pure Canadian (Queen Foods, Australia) 54±6 25 10
 Sucrose
1604 50 g portion (Redpath Sugars, Toronto, Canada) 58 10 6
1605 50 g portion (Japan) 60 10 6
1606 25 g portion (Redpath Sugars, Canada)8 60 10 6
1607 50 g portion (South Africa) 65±9 10 7
1608 100 g portion (Redpath Sugars, Canada)15 65 10 7
1609 50 g portion (China) 84±4 10 8
 mean of six studies 65±4 10 7
 
 VEGETABLES
1610 Broad beans, frozen, reheated in microwave 63±9 80 3
  (Logan Farm Pty Ltd, Australia)8
 Green peas
1611 Pea, frozen, boiled (Canada)8 51±6 80 4
1612 Pea, green (Pisum Sativum) (India)14 54±14 80 4
 Pumpkin
1613 Butternut pumpkin, boiled (Australia)8 51±6 80 3
1614 Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), peeled, cubed, 66±4 80 12
  boiled 30 min (Jamaica)
1615 Pumpkin, boiled in salted water (South Africa) 75±9 80 3
 mean of three studies 64 80 6
 Sweet corn
1616 Sweet corn, 'Honey & Pearl' variety (New Zealand) 37±12 80 6
1617 Sweet corn on the cob, boiled 20 min 48 80 8
  (Sydney, Australia)
1618 Sweet corn (China) 55±2 80 9
1619 Sweet corn, boiled (USA) 60 80 11
1620 Sweet corn (South Africa) 62±5 80 11
 mean of five studies 52±5 80 9
 
 Root vegetables
 Carrots
1621 Carrots, raw, diced (Australia) 35±5 80 2
1622 Carrots, raw, ground (Australia) 39±1 80 2
1623 Carrots, peeled, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)8 33±5 80 2
1624 Carrots, peeled, diced boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)8 49±2 80 2
 mean of four studies 39±4 80 2
1625 Cassava (Manihot esculenta), peeled, boiled 30 min, 94±11 120 36
  frozen, thawed and reheated for 1 min
1626 Parsnips, peeled, boiled (Australia)8 52±5 80 4
 Potato
 Baked potato
1627 Potato, white with skin, baked (UK) 69±5 150 19
1628 Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), peeled, 83±6 150 25
  baked 45 min (Jamaica)
1629 Pontiac, peeled and baked (Australia) 93±11 150 17
1630 Potato, white without skin, baked (UK) 98±8 150 26
 mean of four foods 86±6 150 22
 Baked, Russet Burbank potatoes
1631 Russet, baked without fat (USA) 111 150 33
 Boiled potato
1632 Asterix, peeled, boiled 30 min (Sweden) 78 150 20
1633 Asterix, peeled, boiled 30 min, served with 15.4 g 92 150 24
  sunflower oil (Ica Handlarna, Solna, Sweden)
1634 Charlotte, peeled, quartered, boiled 15 min (UK) 66±5 150 15
1635 Charlotte, boiled (UK) 81±11 150 19
1636 Desiree, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia) 101±15 150 17
1637 Estima, peeled, quartered, boiled 15 min (UK) 66±5 150 17
1638 Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), peeled, cubed, 59±4 150 19
  boiled 30 min (Jamaica)
1639 King Edward potato, peeled, quartered, 75±10 150 21
  boiled 15 min in unsalted water (UK)
1640 Marfona potato, peeled, quartered, boiled 15 min 56±3 150 18
  in unsalted water (UK)
1641 Maris Piper potato, peeled, quartered, boiled 15 min 85±4 150 25
  in unsalted water (UK)
1642 Nicola potato, peeled, quartered, boiled 15 min (UK) 59±7 150 9
1643 Nicola potato, unpeeled, boiled whole for 15 min 58±3 150 9
  (Australia)
1644 Pontiac, peeled, boiled whole for 30 min (Australia) 56 150 14
1645 Pontiac, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia) 88±9 150 16
1646 Sava, peeled, boiled 21-30 min (Sweden) 118 150 24
1647 Sebago, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia) 87±7 150 14
 Boiled/cooked, white/Type NS
1648 Type NS, boiled (China) 66±1 150 13
1649 Type NS, boiled in salted water (India) 76 150 26
1650 Red potatoes, boiled with skin on in salted water 89±7 150 19
  for 12 min (Canada)
1651 Potato, white, boiled (UK) 96±10 150 24
 mean of four studies 82±7 150 21
 Boiled potato cooked then cooled
1652 Sava, peeled, boiled 21-30 min, refrigerated 24 h, 88 150 18
  consumed cold (Sweden)
1653 Sava, peeled, boiled 21-30 min, refrigerated 24 h, 67 150 13
  consumed cold with white vinegar (28 g)
  and olive oil (8 g) (Sweden)
1654 Type NS, boiled in salted water, refrigerated, 23 150 8
  reheated (India)
1655 Potato, red, cubed, boiled in salted water 12 min, 56±5 150 12
  stored overnight in refrigerator, consumed cold
  (Canada)
 
 Canned potatoes
1656 New, canned, heated in microwave 3 min (Mint Tiny 65±9 150 12
  TatersTM, Edgell'sTM brand, Cheltenham, Australia)
 French Fries
1657 French fries (Ica Handlarna, Solna, Sweden), 54 150 16
  baked at 250oC for 9 min
1658 French Fries, baked 15 min (OreIda Golden Fries, 64±6 150 21
  H.J. Heinz Co, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)
1659 Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), peeled, fried in 70±6 150 21
  vegetable oil (Jamaica)
 Instant Mashed potato
1660 Instant (Idahoan Foods, Lewisville, ID, USA) 79±7 150 16
1661 Instant (Canada) 80±13 150 16
1662 Instant (Edgell's Potato Whip, Edgell's, Australia) 86 150 17
1663 Instant (Idahoan Foods, Lewisville, ID, USA) 88±8 150 18
1664 Instant (Idahoan Foods, Lewisville, ID, USA), 92±4 150 18
  prepared with water
1665 Instant (Idahoan Foods, Lewisville, ID, USA) 97±6 150 19
 mean of six studies 87±3 150 17
 Instant mashed potato consumed with added fat
1666 Mashed potato, instant (Farmland, Australia) 71±10 150 17
  consumed with 30 g Sunola oil (80% MUFA oil)
1667 Mashed potato, instant (Farmland, Australia) 74±10 150 18
  consumed with 36.5 g butter (69% saturated fat)
1668 Mashed potato, instant (Farmland, Australia) 68±8 150 17
  consumed with 30 g sunflower oil (64% PUFA oil)
 Mashed potato
1669 Type NS (South Africa) 71±10 150 14
1670 Type NS (China) 73±3 150 15
1671 Type NS (France) 83 150 17
 mean of three studies 76 150 15
1672 Desiree potato, mashed (UK) 102±13 150 26
1673 Pontiac, peeled, cubed, boiled 15 min, mashed 91±9 150 18
  (Australia)
 Microwaved potato
1674 Estima, microwaved 6 min then baked 10 min (UK) 93±8 150 24
1675 Pontiac, peeled and microwave on high 79±9 150 14
  for 6-7.5 min (Australia)
1676 Prince Edward Island white potato, cooked in 73±5 150 15
  microwave for 18 min (Canada)
1677 Russet Burbank potato, unpeeled, cooked in 77±9 150 19
  microwave for 18 min (Canada)
 New Potato
1678 New (Canada) 70±8 150 12
1679 New, unpeeled and boiled 20 min (Australia) 78±12 150 16
1680 New potato, boiled (UK) 80±15 150 18
 mean of three studies 76 150 16
 Steamed potato
1681 Potato, NS type, steamed (China) 62±2 150 12
1682 Potato (Solanum Tuberosum), peeled, steamed 1 h 65±11 150 18
  (India)14
1683 California white potatoes, cubed, 72±8 150 14
  roasted in soybean oil (Canada)
 Sweet potato, cooked
1684 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), boiled(Australia) 44 150 11
1685 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), peeled, cubed, 46±5 150 15
  boiled 30 min (Jamaica)
1686 Sweet potato, orange flesh, peeled, cut into pieces, 61±6 150 11
  boiled for 8 min (Australia) (2006)
1687 Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 77±12 150 19
1688 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), peeled, 94±8 150 42
  baked 45 min (Jamaica)
1689 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), peeled, 76±7 150 34
  fried in vegetable oil (Jamaica)
1690 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), peeled, roasted 82±5 150 37
  on preheated charcoal (Jamaica)
1691 Sweet potato, orange (China) 77±4 150 16
1692 Sweet potato, purple skin white flesh, peeled, 75±5 150 22
  cut into pieces, boiled for 8 min (Australia) (2006)
 mean of nine studies 70±6 150 22
 Tapioca
1693 Tapioca (Manihot Utilissima), steamed 1 h (India)14 70±10 250 12
 Taro
1694 Taro (China) 48±5 150 4
1695 Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled (Australia) 54 150 4
1696 Taro, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 56±12 150 4
 mean of three studies 53 150 4
 Yam
1697 Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 35±5 150 13
1698 Yam (China) 54±2 150 19
1699 Yam, steamed (China) 51±4 150 18
1700 Yam (Dioscorea spp.), boiled (Nigeria)11,14 74 150 28
 mean of four studies 54±8 150 20
1701 Yam (Dioscorea spp.), boiled, consumed with 74 150 28
  4.24 g salt (Nigeria)11,14
1702 Coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), peeled, cubed, 61±5 150 28
  boiled 30 min (Jamaica)
 Yam, Lucea (Dioscorea rotundata)
1703 Lucea Yam, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 (Jamaica) 74±7 150 20
1704 Lucea Yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 77±5 150 29
  (Jamaica)
 Yam, Negro (Dioscorea rotundata)
1705 Negro yam, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica) 73±4 150 23
1706 Negro yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 73±6 150 28
  (Jamaica)
 Yam, Round leaf yellow (Dioscorea cayenensis)
1707 Round leaf yellow yam, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min 68±3 150 23
  (Jamaica)
1708 Round leaf yellow yam, peeled, roasted on preheated 80±7 150 32
  charcoal (Jamaica)
 Yam, Sweet (Dioscorea alata)
1709 Sweet yam, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica) 79±4 150 20
1710 Sweet yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 82±7 150 32
  (Jamaica)
 Yam, White (Dioscorea alata)
1711 White yam, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica) 75±6 150 24
1712 White yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 80±6 150 28
  (Jamaica)
 
 INDIGENOUS OR TRADITIONAL FOODS OF
  DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS
  AFRICAN
1713 Brown beans (South Africa) 24±8 50 (dry) 6
1714 FooFoo corn (Zea mays) and ndole (vegetable soup)14 34 - -
  (Cameroon)
1715 Ga kenkey, prepared from fermented cornmeal (Zea mays) 12±1 150 7
  eaten with fish, tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)
1716 Gari, roasted cassava dough (Manihot utilissima) 56±3 100 15
  eaten with fish, tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)
1717 Gram dhal soaked overnight, cooked in salted water 5±3 50 (dry) 1
  (South Africa)
1718 Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stew and plantain14 48 - -
  (Musa paradisiaca) (Cameroon)
1719 Koki beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cassava14 52 - -
  (Manihot esculenta) (Cameroon)
1720 Maize meal porridge, unrefined, 71±6 50 (dry) 25
  maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa)
1721 Maize meal porridge, refined, 74±7 50 (dry) 30
  maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa)
1722 M'fino/Morogo, wild greens (South Africa) 68±8 120 34
1723 Rice (Oriza sativa) and tomato soup (Cameroon)14 46 - -
1724 Unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) eaten with fish, 40±4 120 (raw) 13
  tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)
1725 White rice (Oryza sativa), boiled, eaten with fish, 34±3 150 14
  tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)
1726 Yam (Dyscoria species) eaten with fish, tomato 66 150 24
  and onion sauce (Ghana)
1727 Yam (Dioscorea species) and groundnut14 50 - -
  (Arachis hypogaea) soup (Cameroon)
 
 ARABIC AND TURKISH
1728 Dates, Khalas (Rutab, soft early ripened) (90 g), 37±5 215 19
  eaten with full-fat plain yoghurt (125 g)
  (United Arab Emirates)
1729 Dates, Khalas (Tamer, dark brown commercial) (60 g), 29±4 185 15
  eaten with full-fat plain yoghurt (125 g)
  (United Arab Emirates)
1730 Hummus (chickpea salad dip) 6±4 30 0
1731 Lebanese bread (white, unleaved), hummus, 86±12 120 39
  falafel and tabbouleh
1732 Stuffed grapevine leaves (rice and lamb stuffing 30±11 100 5
  with tomato sauce)
 
 ASIAN
1733 Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker 86±8 150 37
  (Lion foods, Bangkok, Thailand)
1734 Butter rice, warm white rice and butter (Japan) 79 150 40
1735 Curry rice (Japan) 67 150 41
1736 Curry rice with cheese (Japan) 55 150 27
1737 Glutaminous rice flour, instant, served warm with 65 100 27
  roasted ground soybean (Japan)
1738 Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker 94±6 150 31
  (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Co., Bangkok, Thailand)
1739 Glutinous rice, type NS (Esubi Shokuhin, Japan) 86 150 56
1740 Glutinous rice ball with cut glutinous cake 48 75 13
  (mochi) (Japan)
1741 Glutinous rice cake with dried sea algae (Japan) 83 75 32
1742 Jasmine rice, white, cooked in rice cooker 109±10 150 46
  (Golden World Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)
1743 Lotus root powder (China) 33±6 15 3
1744 Low-protein white rice with dried sea algae (Japan) 70 150 42
1745 Lychee, canned in syrup, drained 79±8 120 16
  (Narcissus brand, China)
1746 Mung bean noodles, dried, boiled (China) 39±9 180 18
1747 Non-glutaminous rice flour, served warm with drink 68 100 34
  (Yamato Nousan, Japan)
1748 Rice cracker, plain (Sakada, Japan) 91 30 23
1749 Rice gruel with dried algae (Satou Co Ltd., Japan) 81 250 15
1750 Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, 61±6 180 23
  Bangkok, Thailand)
1751 Rice noodles, fresh, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 40±4 180 15
1752 Roasted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan) 77 75 21
1753 Salted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan) 80 75 21
1754 Soba noodles, instant, reheated in hot water, 46 180 22
  served with soup (Japan)
1755 Sushi, salmon ('I Love Sushi', Sydney, Australia)8 48±8 100 17
1756 Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan) 55 100 20
1757 Udon noodles, fresh, reheated (Fantastic brand, 62±8 180 30
  Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia)8
1758 Udon noodles, instant, with sauce and fried 48 180 23
  bean curd (Nishin Shokuhin, Japan)
1759 White rice, dried sea algae and milk, 57 300 27
  eaten together (Japan)
1760 White rice, dried sea algae and milk 56 300 26
  (milk eaten before rice) (Japan)
1761 White rice, dried sea algae and milk 55 300 26
  (milk eaten after rice) (Japan)
 mean of three types 56 300 26
1762 White rice with dried fish strip (okaka) (Japan) 79 150 40
1763 White rice with fermented soybean (natto) (Japan) 56 150 24
1764 White rice with instant miso soup 61 150 29
  (soybean paste soup) (Japan)
1765 White rice with low-fat milk (Japan) 69 300 32
1766 White rice and non-sugar yoghurt (yoghurt eaten 59 150 19
  before rice) (Japan)
1767 White rice and non-sugar yoghurt eaten 58 150 19
  together (Japan)
1768 White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber 63 150 27
  (pickled food eaten before rice) (Japan)
1769 White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber 61 150 26
  (pickled food eaten with rice) (Japan)
1770 White rice topped with raw egg and soy sauce (Japan) 72 150 26
1771 White rice with roasted ground soybean (Japan) 56 150 29
1772 White rice with salted dried plum (umeboshi) (Japan) 80 150 39
1773 White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted 77 150 39
  sea algae (Japan)
 
 ASIAN INDIAN
1774 Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum), eaten as 49 75 (dry) 25
  roasted bread made from bajra flour
1775 Banana, (Musa sapientum), Nendra variety, 70±11 120 31
  unripe, steamed 1 h14
1776 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 48 150 16
1777 Bengal gram dhal, chickpea 11 150 4
1778 Black gram, (Phaseolus mungo), soaked 12 h, 43±10 150 8
  stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h14
 Chapatti
1779 Chapatti, bajra 49 - -
1780 Chapatti, barley 48 - -
1781 Chapatti, maize (Zea mays) 59 - -
1782 Chapatti, flour from malted wheat, moth bean 66±9 60 25
 (Phaseolus aconitifolius) and bengal gram
 (Cicer arietinum)
1783 Chapatti, flour made from popped wheat, moth bean 40±8 60 14
  and bengal gram
1784 Chapatti, flour from roller dried wheat, moth bean 60±9 60 23
  and bengal gram
1785 Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram 44±3 200 22
  (Phaseolus aureus) dhal
 Cheela (thin savoury pancake made from legume
  flour batter)
1786 Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) 42±1 150 12
1787 Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), 36±1 150 10
  fermented batter
1788 Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus) 45±1 150 12
1789 Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus), 38±1 150 10
  fermented batter
1790 Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, 55±2 150 22
  fermented and fried) with chutney
1791 Green gram, (Phaseolus aureus), soaked 12 h, 38±14 150 6
  stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h14
1792 Horse gram, (Dolichos biflorus) soaked 12 h, 51±11 150 15
  stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h14
1793 Idli (parboiled and raw rice with black dhal, soaked, 60±2 250 31
  ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney
1794 Lentil and cauliflower curry with rice (Australia) 60±10 360 31
1795 Millet/Ragi, (Eleucine coracana), dehusked, 68±10 150 23
  soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h14
1796 Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, 45±2 250 35
  pressure cooked)
1797 Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with 57±1 150 28
  potato palya (mashed potato)
1798 Porridge, made from scoured wheat, consumed with 39 100 23
  Bengal gram, green gram and black gram
1799 Porridge, made from decorticated finger millet, eaten 65 100 44
  with Bengal gram, green gram and black gram
1800 Porridge, made from popped rice (aralu), consumed 76 100 52
  with Bengal gram, green gram and black gram
1801 Porridge, made from expanded rice (puri), consumed 74 100 47
  with Bengal gram, green gram and black gram
1802 Rajmah, Phaseolus vulgaris (India) 19 150 6
1803 Tapioca (Manihot utilissima), steamed 1h14 70±10 250 12
1804 Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water) 69±4 150 28
 
 AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL
1805 Acacia aneura (mulga seed) roasted, 8 50 1
  wet ground to paste8
1806 Acacia coriacea, desert oat seed bread8 46 75 11
1807 Araucaria bidwillii (bunya tree nut), baked 10 min8 47 50 7
1808 Bush honey, sugar bag8 43 30 11
1809 Castanospermum austral (blackbean seed), sliced, 8 50 1
  soaked 1 wk, pounded and baked8
1810 Dioscorea bulbifera (cheeky yam), peeled, sliced, 34 150 12
 soaked 2 d, baked 15 min8
1811 Macrozamia communis (cycad palm seed), sliced, 40±2 50 10
  soaked 1 wk, pounded, baked8
 
 PACIFIC ISLANDERS
1812 Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) (Australia)8 68 120 18
 Banana/plantain, green
1813 Green banana, boiled (New Zealand) 38±10 120 8
1814 Plantain (Musa AAB) (Fiji) 68±6 120 21
1815 Roti/chappati (Fiji) 59±5 60 16
 Sweet Potato
1816 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) (Australia) 44 150 11
1817 Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 77±12 150 19
1818 Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) (Fiji) 63±5 150 23
 Taro
1819 Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled (Australia) 54 150 4
1820 Taro, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 56±12 150 4
1821 Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 35±5 150 13
 
 PIMA INDIAN
1822 Acorns (Quercus emoryi, stewed with venison8 16±1 100 1
1823 Cactus jam (Stenocereus thurberi) 91 30 18
1824 Corn hominy (Zea mays)8 40±5 150 12
1825 Fruit Leather (Stenocereus thurberi) 70 30 17
1826 Lima beans broth (Phaseolus lunatus)8 36±3 250 12
1827 Tortilla (Zea mays and Olneya tesota) 38 60 9
1828 White teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)8 31±3 250 10
1829 Yellow teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)8 29±3 250 8
 
 SOUTH AMERICAN
1830 Arepa, corn bread cake, made with corn flour (Mexico)14 72 100 31
1831 Arepa, made from ordinary dehulled dent corn flour12,31 81 100 35
  (25% amylose)
1832 Arepa, made from dehulled high-amylose 44 100 11
  (70%) corn flour12,31
1833 Arepa, made from white corn meal flour (Venezuela) 54 100 19
1834 Arepa, made from white corn meal flour, supplemented 60 100 19
  with 20% stabilised rice bran (Venezuela)
1835 Corn tortilla (Mexico) 52 50 12
1836 Corn tortilla, served with refried mashed pinto beans 39 100 9
  and tomato sauce (Mexico)
1837 Corn tortilla, fried, with mashed potato, fresh tomato 78 100 11
  and lettuce (Mexico)
1838 Ground beef served with rice and an orange (Chile) 31±9 300 24
1839 Lentil soup, pureed consumed with an orange (Chile) 49±9 300 16
1840 Pinhao, Brazilian Parana Pine seeds (Araucaria 47 50 8
 angustifolia) with coat, cooked for 1.5 h
  in 1 L of water (Brazil)
1841 Pinhao, without coat, cooked for 1h in 1L of water 43 50 8
  (Brazil)
1842 Pinto beans, boiled in salted water (Mexico) 14 150 4
1843 Spaghetti served with beef tomato sauce 42±7 300 21
  and an orange (Chile)
1844 Spaghetti served with pressure-cooked white beans 77±14 300 25
  and an orange (Chile)
1845 Wheat tortilla (Mexico) 30 50 8
1846 Wheat tortilla served with refried pinto beans and 28 100 5
  tomato sauce (Mexico)
 
 WEST INDIAN/CARIBBEAN
1847 Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), peeled, boiled 26 min, 60±9 120 17
  frozen, thawed and reheated for 1 min
1848 Cassava (Manihot esculenta), peeled, boiled 30 min, 94±11 120 36
  frozen, thawed and reheated for 1 min
 Dasheen (Colocasia esculenta)
1849 Dasheen, peeled, boiled 30 min, refrigerated, 77±10 150 44
  reheated for 1 min
1850 Dasheen, peeled, boiled 30 min, crushed, refrigerated, 66±6 150 38
  reheated for 1 min
1851 Dasheen, peeled, boiled 30 min, uncrushed (whole), 75±12 150 43
  refrigerated, reheated for 1 min
1852 Dasheen, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica) 72±5 150 19
 mean of four foods 73±2 150 36
1853 Eddoe (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum), 61±10 150 21
  peeled, boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min
 Green banana/plantain (Musa sapientum)
1854 Green banana, peeled, boiled 10 min (Jamaica) 37±5 120 10
1855 Green banana, peeled, fried in vegetable oil (Jamaica) 35±3 120 11
1856 Green banana/plantain, boiled 23 min, frozen, 65±11 120 17
  thawed and reheated for 1 min
1857 Green plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, 39±4 120 9
  boiled 10 min (Jamaica)
1858 Green plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, fried 40±3 120 14
  in vegetable oil (Jamaica)
1859 Ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, 66±2 120 13
  boiled 10 min (Jamaica)
1860 Ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, fried 90±6 120 26
  in vegetable oil (Jamaica)
1861 Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), peeled, 71±8 150 35
  boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min
1862 Irish potato, peeled, boiled 30 min, crushed 66±7 150 33
1863 Irish potato, peeled, boiled 30 min, uncrushed (whole), 66±10 150 33
  refrigerated, reheated for 1 min
 mean of three foods 68 150 34
1864 Sadha roti (leavened wheat-based bread) 65±9 - -
1865 Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), peeled, 60±5 150 33
  boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min
1866 Tannia, peeled, boiled 30 min, crushed, refrigerated, 52±5 150 29
  reheated for 1 min
1867 Tannia, peeled, boiled 30 min, uncrushed (whole), 50±8 150 28
  refrigerated, reheated for 1 min
 mean of three foods 54 150 30
 Yam
1868 Coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), peeled, cubed, 61±5 150 28
  boiled 30 min (Jamaica)
1869 Lucea yam (Dioscorea rotunda), peeled, cubed, 74±7 150 20
  boiled 30 (Jamaica)
1870 Lucea yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 77±5 150 29
  (Jamaica)
1871 Negro yam (Dioscorea rotundata), peeled, cubed, 73±4 150 23
  boiled 30 (Jamaica)
1872 Negro yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 73±6 150 28
  (Jamaica)
1873 Round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), 68±3 150 23
  peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica)
1874 Round leaf yellow yam, peeled, roasted on preheated 80±7 150 32
  charcoal (Jamaica)
1875 Sweet yam (Dioscorea alata), peeled, cubed, 79±4 150 20
  boiled 30 min (Jamaica)
1876 Sweet yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 82±7 150 32
  (Jamaica)
1877 White yam (Dioscorea alata), peeled, boiled 30 min, 62±6 150 15
  refrigerated, reheated for 1 min
1878 White yam, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica) 75±6 150 24
1879 White yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal 80±6 150 28
  (Jamaica)
 
 
Footnotes
1. NS, not specified; AUC, area under the curve. Serving sizes in grams unless otherwise specified.
2. Mean ± SEM. Two GI values are shown for each food - one in which glucose sugar was used as the reference food and one in which white bread was used as the reference food.
3. Estimated by multiplying the food's listed GI value with glucose as the reference food by the listed g carbohydrate per serving and dividing by 100.
4. Sydney University's Glycemic Index Research Service (Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia), unpublished observations, 1995-2007.
5. Glycemic Index Laboratories, Inc. (Toronto, Canada), unpublished observations, 2004 - 2007.
6. International Diabetes Institute (Melbourne, Australia), unpublished observations, 2006 - 2007.
7. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 10 g carbohydrate.
8. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 25 g carbohydrate.
9. GI calculated from the 120 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.
10. V Lang (Danone Vitapole Company, Le Plessis-Robinson, France), unpublished observations, 1996-2000.
11. GI calculated from the 180 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.
12. GI calculated by using a mathematical formula based on results from an in vitro starch hydrolysis assay.
13. White rice was used as the reference food, but glucose was also tested and had a GI of 122. The observed GI was multiplied by 100 and then divided by 122 to convert it to a GI on the glucose scale (ie, glucose = reference food with a GI of 100).
14. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 75 g carbohydrate.
15. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 100 g carbohydrate.
16. B Spratt (George Westons Foods, Australia), unpublished observations, 2007.
17. Values based on 0.5 g carbohydrate/kg body weight.
18. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 70 g carbohydrate.
19. Glycemic Index Symbol Program: http://www.gisymbol.com.au; Accessed 30 August 2007.
20. GI value included in original article determined from AUC measured over 180 min for only 4 time points (0, 60, 120 and 180 min).
21. J Dzieniszewski, J Ciok (National Food and Nutrition Institute, Poland), unpublished observations, 1996-2001.
22. J Brand-Miller, S Holt (University of Sydney, Australia), and V Lang (Danone Vitapole Company, Le Plessis-Robinson, France), unpublished observations, 2000-2001.
23. C Dalaudier (Nairn's Oatcakes Ltd, Scotland), unpublished observations, 2007.
24. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 30 g carbohydrate.
25. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 20 g carbohydrate.
26. Potato used as the reference food with a GI fixed at 80. The GI of the test food was calculated by expressing the test food's glucose AUC value as a percentage of the potato's AUC value.
27. GI calculated from the 90 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.
28. GI calculated from the 150 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.
29. GI included in original article determined from AUC measured 120 min for only 4 time points (0, 30, 60 and 120 min).
30. GI included in original article determined from AUC measured 240 min for only 6 time points (0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min).
31. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 45 g carbohydrate.
32. Ordinary corn flour arepa was used as the reference food.
 
 

Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values determined in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, small subject numbers or values showing wide variability: 2008

Food Number and Item GI2 Serve GL3
  (Glucose Size per
   = 100)g serve
 BAKERY PRODUCTS
 Cakes
1880 Angel food cake (Loblaw's, Toronto, Canada) 67 50 19
1881 Carrot cake, prepared with coconut flour (Philippines) 39 60 9
1882 Pound cake (Sara Lee Canada, Bramalea, Canada) 54 53 15
1883 Sponge cake, plain (Canada) 46±6 63 17
1884 Croissant (Food City, Toronto, Canada) 67 57 17
1885 Crumpet (Dempster's Corporate Foods Ltd., 69 50 13
  Etobicoke, Canada)
1886 Doughnut, cake type (Loblaw's, Canada) 76 47 17
1887 Flan cake (Weston's Bakery, Toronto, Canada) 65 70 31
 Muffins
1888 Blueberry muffin (Culinar Inc., Canada) 59 57 17
1889 Bran muffin (Culinar Inc., Grandma Martin's Muffins, 60 57 14
  Aurora, Canada)
1890 Carrot muffin (Culinar Inc., Canada) 62 57 20
1891 Corn muffin, low-amylose4 102 57 30
1892 Corn muffin, high-amylose4 49 57 14
1893 Oatmeal, muffin, made from mix (Quaker Oats Co. 69 50 24
  of Canada, Peterborough, Canada)
 Pancakes
1894 Pancakes, prepared with coconut flour (Philippines) 51 80 11
1895 Pan de sal (sweet bread roll), containing coconut 68 80 24
  flour (Philippines)
1896 Pastry (Canada) 59±6 57 15
1897 Waffles, Aunt Jemima (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada) 76 35 10
 
 BEVERAGES
1898 Lucozade®, original (sparkling glucose drink) 95±10 250 mL 40
  (Glaxo Wellcome Ltd., Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK)
 Sports drinks
1899 Allsport®, orange (PepsiCo Inc., Somers, NY, USA) 53±4 250 mL 11
1900 Cytomax®, orange (Cytosport, Concordia, CA, USA) 62±7 250 mL 7
1901 Gatorade®, orange flavor, US formula 89±12 250 mL 13
  (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA)
1902 GatorLode®, orange flavor 100±9 250 mL 51
  (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA)
1903 Poweraid®, orange (Coca-Cola Company, 65±5 250 mL 13
  Atlanta, GA, USA)
1904 XLR8®, orange flavor (Softpac Industries Inc., 68±7 250 mL 9
  Plymouth, Minn, USA)
 
 BREADS
1905 Bagel, white, frozen (Lender's Bakery, Montreal, Canada) 72 70 25
 Baguette, white
1906 Baguette, white, plain (France) 95±15 30 14
1907 Classic French baguette (prepared with wheat flour, 83±6 30 15
  ascorbic acid, water, salt & 50 g yeast) (France)
1908 Classic French baguette (prepared with wheat flour, 78±17 30 14
  ascorbic acid, water, salt & 50 g yeast) (France)
1909 French bread, fermented with leaven (France) 80±18 30 13
1910 French bread, fermented with yeast (France) 81±35 30 13
1911 Traditional French baguette (prepared with wheat 69±5 30 12
  flour, water, salt and 20 g yeast) (France)
1912 Bread stuffing, Paxo (Campbell Soup Co Ltd., 74 30 16
  Toronto, Canada)
 Barley Breads
1913 Coarse barley kernel bread, 75% kernels 27 30 5
1914 Barley kernel bread, 50% kernels (Canada) 43 30 9
1915 Barley flour bread, 100% barley flour (Canada) 67 30 9
1916 Hamburger bun (Loblaw's, Toronto, Canada) 61 30 9
1917 Kaiser rolls (Loblaw's, Canada) 73 30 12
1918 Melba toast, Old London (Best Foods Canada Inc., 70 30 16
  Etobicoke, Canada)
 Gluten-free bread
1919 Gluten-free white bread, unsliced 71 30 11
  (gluten-free wheat starch) (UK)
1920 Gluten-free white bread, sliced 80 30 12
  (gluten-free wheat starch) (UK)
1921 Gluten-free fiber-enriched, unsliced (gluten-free 69 30 9
  wheat starch, soya bran) (UK)
1922 Gluten-free fiber-enriched, sliced (gluten-free 76 30 10
  wheat starch, soya bran) (UK)
 Rye kernel (pumpernickel) bread
1923 Rye kernel bread (Pumpernickel) (Canada) 41 30 5
1924 Wholegrain pumpernickel (Holtzheuser Brothers Ltd., 46 30 5
  Toronto, Canada)
1925 Wholemeal rye bread (75% rye flour with 25% cracked 54 30 7
  rye grains) (Schilstad bread, Aarhus, Denmark)
1926 Rye kernel bread, Pumpernickel (80% kernels) (Canada) 55 30 7
1927 Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, 55 30 7
  Toronto, Canada)
1928 Pumpernickel bread (Canada) 56 30 7
1929 Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, Canada) 62 30 8
 mean of seven studies 53±3 30 6
 Wholemeal rye bread
1930 Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 41 30 6
1931 Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 62 30 9
1932 Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 63 30 9
1933 Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 66 30 9
 mean of four studies 58±6 30 8
 Specialty rye breads
1934 Bürgen® Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 74±6 30 7
1935 Klosterbrot wholemeal rye bread 67 30 9
  (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd., Canada)
1936 Light rye (Silverstein's Bakery, Toronto, Canada) 68 30 10
1937 Linseed rye (Rudolph's Specialty Bakery Ltd., 55 30 7
  Toronto, Canada)
1938 Sourdough rye (Canada) 57 30 7
1939 Volkornbrot, wholemeal rye bread 56 30 7
  (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd., Canada)
 Wheat Breads
 Cracked wheat kernel (bulgur) bread
1940 50% cracked wheat kernel (Canada) 58 30 12
1941 75% cracked wheat kernels (Canada) 48 30 10
 White wheat flour bread
1942 White flour (USA)5 70 30 10
1943 White flour (Dempster's Corporate Foods Ltd., Canada) 71 30 10
1944 White flour (Canada) 71 30 10
1945 White flour (Israel) 78±5 30 12
 mean of four studies 73±2 30 10
1946 White wheat flour bread, hard, toasted (Italy) 73 30 11
1947 White Turkish bread (Turkey) 87 30 15
 White bread, fiber-enriched
1948 White, high-fiber (Dempster's Corporate 67 30 9
  Foods Ltd., Canada)
1949 White, high-fiber (Weston's Bakery, Toronto, Canada) 69 30 9
 White bread with enzyme inhibitors
1950 White bread + acarbose (200 mg) (Mexico) 18 30 3
1951 White bread roll + 3 mg trestatin (pancreatic 48 30 6
  alpha-amylase inhibitor) (Switzerland)6,7
1952 White bread roll + 6 mg trestatin (Switzerland)6,7 29 30 3
 White bread with soluble fiber
1953 White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium) 41 30 7
  (Mexico)
 White bread with Sunfibre (Cyamoposis
  tetragonolobus) (Indian cluster guar beans)
1954 White bread with 3 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 53 30 8
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Yokaichi Mie, Japan)
1955 White bread with 5 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 49 30 8
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Yokaichi Mie, Japan)
1956 White bread with 10 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 47 30 8
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan)
1957 White bread with 15 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 37 30 6
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan)
1958 White bread with 5 g Sunfibre, viscosity 2 39 30 6
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan), viscosity 2
 White bread consumed with fiber drink
1959 White bread consumed with 5 g Sunfibre (Taiyo 46 - -
  Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan) dissolved in 250 mL water
1960 White bread consumed with 10 g Sunfibre (Taiyo 41 - -
  Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan) dissolved in 250 mL water
1961 White bread consumed with 10 g insoluble dextrin 48 - -
  (Matsutani Chemical Industry Co. Ltd, Japan)
  in 250 mL water
1962 White bread with 10 g inulin (Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) 46 - -
  in 250 mL water
 Wholemeal (whole wheat) wheat flour bread
1963 Wholemeal flour (Canada)3 52 30 6
1964 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 64 30 8
1965 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 65 30 8
1966 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 67 30 8
1967 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 67 30 8
1968 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 69 30 8
1969 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 69 30 8
1970 Wholemeal flour (Canada) 71 30 9
1971 Wholemeal flour (Denmark)6,7 71 30 10
1972 Wholemeal flour (USA)4 73 30 10
1973 Wholemeal flour (Kenya) 87 30 11
 mean of eleven studies 69± 2 30 9
1974 Wholemeal Turkish bread 49 30 8
 Specialty wheat breads
1975 Bürgen® Mixed Grain (Tip Top Bakeries, 69±6 30 8
  Chatswood, NSW, Australia)
1976 MolenbergTM (Goodman Fielder, New Zealand) 84±8 30 12
1977 Multigrain loaf, containing coconut flour (Philippines) 65 30 8
1978 Semolina bread (Kenya)5 64 - -
1979 Whole-wheat snack bread (Ryvita Co Ltd., 74 30 16
  Poole, Dorset, UK)
1980 Middle Eastern flatbread 97±29 30 15
1981 Pita bread, white (Canada) 57 30 10
1982 Pita bread, white (Sainsbury's, UK) 67±16 30 10
1983 Pita bread, white (Value, UK) 69±20 30 10
1984 Wheat flour flatbread (India) 66±9 30 11
1985 Amaranth : wheat (25:75) flour flatbread (India) 66±10 30 10
1986 Amaranth : wheat (50:50) flour flatbread (India) 76±20 30 11
 
 BREAKFAST CEREALS
1987 All-BranTM, high-fiber, extruded wheat bran cereal 50 30 12
  (Kellogg's Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)
1988 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped, 97±19 30 18
  eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener (India)
1989 Bran BudsTM (Kellogg's Inc., Canada)9 58 30 7
1990 Bran Buds with psyllium (Kellogg's Inc., Canada)9 47 30 6
1991 Bran ChexTM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Toronto, Canada)9 58 30 11
1992 CheeriosTM (General Mills Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)9 74 30 15
1993 Corn BranTM (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada, 75 30 15
  Peterborough, Canada)9
1994 Corn ChexTM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)9 83 30 21
 CornflakesTM
1995 CornflakesTM (Kellogg's, Auckland, New Zealand) 72±16 30 18
1996 CornflakesTM (Kellogg's Inc., Canada) 86 30 22
1997 CornflakesTM (Kellogg's, USA)4 92 30 24
1998 Cornflakes (Kellogg's, France) 93±16 30 25
1999 Cornflakes (Kellogg's, MI, USA) 132±33 30 33
 mean of five studies 95±10 30 25
2000 Cornflakes, high-fiber (Presidents Choice, 74 30 17
  Sunfresh Ltd., Toronto, Canada)9
2001 Cream of WheatTM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)9 66 250 17
2002 Cream of WheatTM, Instant 74 250 22
  (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)9
2003 CrispixTM (Kellogg's Inc., Canada)9 87 30 22
2004 Fruitful LiteTM (Hubbards, Auckland, New Zealand) 30 12
2005 Golden GrahamsTM (General Mills Inc., Canada)9 71 30 18
2006 GrapenutsTM (Post, Kraft General Foods Inc., Canada)9 67 30 13
2007 GrapenutsTM Flakes (Post, Kraft General Foods Inc., 80 30 17
  Canada)9
2008 LifeTM (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)9 66 30 17
2009 Muesli, No Name (Sunfresh Ltd., Toronto, Canada)9 60 30 11
 Oat bran
2010 Oat bran, raw (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)9 50 10 2
2011 Oat bran, raw 59 10 3
2012 Oat Bran (Quaker Oats Co, Peterborough, ON, Canada) 60 10 4
 mean of three studies 56 10 3
2013 Oat bran crisp (Natureal® GI-crisp, Finn Cereal, 79 30 10
  Vantaa, Finland)10,11
2014 Oat bran flour (Natureal® GI-flour, Finn Cereal, 40 30 2
  Vantaa, Finland), consumed mixed with cold water10,11
 Porridge made from rolled oats
2015 Porridge (Canada) 62 250 14
2016 Porridge (Canada) 69 250 16
2017 Porridge (USA)4 75 250 17
 mean of three studies 69 250 16
 Instant Porridge
2018 Quick Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada) 65 250 17
2019 One Minute Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)9 66 250 17
2020 Pro StarsTM (General Mills Inc., Canada)9 71 30 17
2021 Puffed Wheat (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)9 67 30 13
2022 Red River Cereal (Maple Leaf Mills, Toronto, Canada)9 49 30 11
2023 Rice ChexTM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)9 89 30 23
2024 Rice KrispiesTM (Kellogg's Inc., Canada)9 82 30 22
2025 Shredded WheatTM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)9 83 30 17
2026 Sultana Bran (Healthy Living, UK) 90±17 30 15
2027 TeamTM (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)9 82 30 18
2028 Thank GoodnessTM (Hubbards, New Zealand) 65±18 30 15
2029 TotalTM (General Mills Inc., Canada)99 76 30 17
2030 Wheat flakes, enriched with extruded oat-bran 36 30 6
  concentrate (8.1% β-glucan) (Canada)
2031 WeetabixTM, plain flaked wheat biscuits 74 30 16
  (Weetabix of Canada Ltd., Thornhill, Canada)9
2032 Juicy cereal bar (stavnata tycinka FIT, Usovsko, 85±16 30 17
  Czech Republic)
2033 Wheat flake bar, containing frutcose and extruded 30 30 5
  oat bran concentrate (6.5% β-glucan) (Canada)
 
 CEREAL GRAINS
 Amaranth
2034 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped, 97±19 30 21
 eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener (India)
 Barley
 Pearl Barley
2035 Barley, pearled (Canada) 22 150 9
2036 Barley (Canada) 22 150 9
2037 Barley (Canada) 27 150 11
2038 Barley, pearled (Canada) 29 150 12
 mean of four studies 25±2 150 11
2039 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) 37 150 16
2040 Barley, cracked (Malthouth, Tunisia) 50 150 21
 Buckwheat
2041 Buckwheat (Canada) 49 150 15
2042 Buckwheat (Canada) 51±10 150 15
2043 Buckwheat (Canada) 63 150 19
 mean of three studies 54 150 16
 Corn/Maize
2044 Maize meal porridge/gruel (Kenya) 109 - -
 Cornmeal
2045 Cornmeal, boiled in salted water 2 min 68 150 9
  (McNair Products Co. Ltd., Toronto, Canada)
2046 Cornmeal + margarine 69 150 8
  (McNair Products Co. Ltd., Canada)
 Sweet corn
2047 Sweet corn, cooked (Israel) 52±7 150 17
2048 Sweet corn (Canada) 59±11 150 19
2049 Sweet corn (USA)5 60 150 20
 mean of three studies 57 150 19
2050 Sweet corn, whole kernel, canned, diet-pack, drained 46 150 13
  (Featherweight, USA)5
2051 Sweet corn, frozen, reheated in microwave 47 150 16
 (Green Giant Pillsbury Ltd., Toronto, Canada)
2052 Taco shells, cornmeal-based, baked (Old El Paso 68 20 8
  Foods Co., Toronto, Canada)
 Couscous
2053 Couscous, boiled 5 min (Near East Food Products Co., 61 150 21
  Leominster, MA, USA)
2054 Couscous, boiled 5 min (Tunisia) 69 150 23
 Millet
2055 Millet, boiled (Canada) 71±10 150 26
2056 Millet flour porridge (Kenya) 107 - -
 Rice, white
2057 White (Oryza sativa), boiled (India) 69±15 150 30
 Rice, boiled white, type NS
2058 Type NS, boiled (France) 43 150 13
2059 Type NS, eaten alone (France) 45 150 14
2060 Type NS, boiled (France) 47 150 14
2061 Type NS (Canada) 51 150 21
2062 Type NS (France) 52 150 19
2063 Type NS (Canada) 56 150 23
2064 Type NS (Pakistan) 69 150 26
2065 Type NS (Kenya) 112 150 47
 mean of eight studies 59±8 150 21
 Long grain, boiled
2066 Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada) 41 150 16
2067 Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Toronto, Canada) 55 150 22
2068 Long grain, boiled 25 min (Surinam) 56±2 150 24
2069 Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada) 57 150 23
2070 Long grain, boiled 15 min 58 150 23
2071 Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada) 60 150 24
2072 Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada) 60 150 24
2073 Long grain, nonglutinous (non waxy) rice variety 71 150 29
  RD 21/23 (low amylose), boiled (Thailand)
 mean of eight studies 57±3 150 23
 Rice, specialty rices
2074 Cajun Style, Uncle Ben's® (Effem Foods Ltd., 51 150 19
  Bolton, Canada)
2075 Garden Style, Uncle Ben's® 55 150 20
  (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)
2076 Glutinous (waxy) rice, low-amylose, boiled (Thailand) 75 - -
2077 Long Grain and Wild, Uncle Ben's® 54 150 20
  (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)
2078 Mexican Fast and Fancy, Uncle Ben's® 58 150 21
  (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)
2079 Saskatchewan wild rice (Canada) 57 150 18
 Rice, white low-amylose
2080 White, low-amylose, boiled (Turkey) 17 150 7
 Rice, white high-amylose
2081 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 (28% amylose) 37 150 14
2082 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, white, long-grain 39 150 15
  (27% amylose), boiled 17.5 min
 Japonica rice enriched with Sunfibre
 (Cyamoposis tetragonolobus) (soluble fiber)
2083 Japonica rice with 3 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 54 150 22
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan)
2084 Japonica rice with 5 g Sunfibre, viscosity 1 54 150 22
  (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, Japan)
 Milled, white, high amylose rice
2085 Milled (white), high amylose (IR42) rice, 61 150 26
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
2086 Milled (white), high amylose (IR42) rice, 59 150 25
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
2087 Milled (white), high amylose (IR42) rice, 61 150 26
  boiled 22 min (Philippines)
 Rice, brown
2088 Brown (Oryza Sativa), boiled (South India)6 50±19 150 17
2089 Brown, high amylose (IR42) rice, boiled 30 min 39 150 16
  (Philippines)
 Instant/puffed rice
2090 Instant rice, white, boiled 1 min (Canada) 46 150 19
 Parboiled rice
2091 Parboiled rice (Canada) 48 150 17
2092 Parboiled rice (USA)5 72 150 26
2093 Converted, white, Uncle Ben's® 45 150 16
  (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)5
2094 Converted, white, long grain, boiled 20-30 min, 50 150 18
  Uncle Ben's® (Masterfoods USA)
2095 Boiled, 12 min (Denmark)4 39 150 14
2096 Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 42 150 15
2097 Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 43 150 15
2098 Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 46 150 17
2099 Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada) 38 150 14
2100 Long grain, boiled, 10 min (USA)4 61 150 22
2101 Long grain, boiled 15 min (Canada) 47 150 17
2102 Long grain, boiled 25 min (Canada) 46 150 17
 mean of twelve studies 48±3 150 17
2103 Parboiled rice, eaten as part of a traditional 99 - -
  Indian meal (India)6
 Parboiled, low-amylose
2104 Bangladeshi rice variety BR2, parboiled 51 150 19
  (12% amylose)
 Parboiled, high-amylose
2105 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, parboiled 35 150 13
  (28% amylose)
2106 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, traditionally parboiled 32 150 12
  (27% amylose)
2107 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, pressure parboiled 27 150 11
  (27% amylose)
2108 Bangladeshi rice variety BR4, parboiled 33 150 13
  (27% amylose)
 mean of four studies 32±2 150 12
 Rye, whole kernels
2109 Rye, whole kernels (Canada) 29 50 (dry) 11
2110 Rye, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 34 50 (dry) 13
  30 min in 2 L water (Canada)
2111 Rye, whole kernels (Canada) 39 50 (dry) 15
 mean of three studies 34 50 (dry) 13
 Wheat
 Wheat, whole kernels
2112 Wheat, whole kernels (Canada) 42 50 (dry) 14
2113 Wheat, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 44 50 (dry) 14
  30 min in 2 L water (Canada)
2114 Wheat, whole kernels (Canada) 48 50 (dry) 16
 mean of three studies 45 50 (dry) 15
2115 Wheat, type NS (India)11 63 50 (dry) 24
2116 Wheat, type NS (India)6 90 50 (dry) 34
 Semolina
2117 Semolina, roasted at 105oC then gelatinised 55±9 150 6
  with water (India)
2118 Semolina, steamed and gelatinised (India) 54±13 150 6
 Cracked wheat (bulgur/bourghul)
2119 Bulgur, boiled (Canada) 46 150 12
2120 Bulgur, boiled in 800 mL water 20 min (Canada) 46 150 12
2121 Bulgur, boiled (Canada) 46 150 12
2122 Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada) 46 150 12
2123 Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada) 53 150 14
 mean of five studies 47±1 150 12
 
 COOKIES
 Arrowroot
2124 Arrowroot (McCormicks's, Interbare Foods, 63 25 13
  Toronto, Canada)
2125 Arrowroot plus (McCormicks's, Canada) 62 25 11
2126 Chocolate chip cookies, containing coconut flour 50 25 8
  (Philippines)
 Digestives
2127 Digestives (Canada) 55 25 9
2128 Digestives, Peak Freans (Nabisco Ltd., 62 25 9
  Toronto, Canada)
2129 Digestives, gluten-free (maize starch) (Nutricia 58 25 10
  Dietary Care Ltd., Redish, Stockport, UK)
2130 Golden Fruit (Griffin's Foods Ltd., 77±25 25 13
  Auckland, New Zealand)
2131 Graham Wafers (Christie Brown & Co., 74 25 13
  Toronto, Canada)
2132 Highland Oatcakes (Walker's Shortbread Ltd., 57 25 8
  Aberlour-on-Spey, Scotland)
2133 Macaroons, prepared with coconut flour 33 30 6
  (Philippines)
2134 Oro (Saiwa, Italy) 67±17 40 21
2135 Vanilla Wafers (Christie Brown & Co., Canada) 77 25 14
 
 CRACKERS
2136 Breton wheat crackers (Dare Foods Ltd., 67 25 9
  Kitchener, Canada)
 Rye crispbread
2137 Rye crispbread (Canada) 63 25 10
2138 Rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd., UK) 63 25 11
2139 High-fiber rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd., 59 25 9
  Poole, Dorset, UK)
2140 Premium Soda Crackers (Christie Brown & Co., Canada) 74 25 12
2141 Stoned Wheat Thins (Christie Brown & Co., Canada) 67 25 11
 
 DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES
 Ice cream, Regular/NS
2142 Ice cream, NS (Canada) 36±8 50 5
2143 Ice cream, NS (USA)15 62 50 7
2144 Ice cream, chocolate flavored (USA) 68±15 50 10
2145 Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) (Italy)16 80 50 10
 mean of four studies 62±9 50 8
 Milk, full-fat
2146 Full-fat (Italy)16 24 250 mL 3
2147 Full-fat (USA)15 40 250 mL 4
2148 Milk, Full-fat + 20 g wheat bran (Italy)16 25 250 mL 3
2149 Probiotic drink, pink grapefruit (UK)4 60±18 250 mL 20
 Yoghurt
2150 Yoghurt, type NS (Canada) 36±4 200 3
2151 Yoghurt, Strawberry (Healthy Living Light, UK)4 45±16 200 5
2152 Yoghurt, low-fat, toffee (UK)4 51±18 200 15
 Soy-based dairy product alternatives
2153 Tofu-based frozen dessert, chocolate with 115±14 50 10
  high-fructose (24%) corn syrup (USA)
 
 FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS
 Apples, raw
2154 Apple, NS (Denmark) 28 120 4
2155 Apple, Braeburn (New Zealand)4 32±4 120 4
2156 Apple, NS (Canada) 34 120 5
2157 Apple, NS (USA)15 40 120 6
2158 Apple, NS (Italy) 44 120 6
 mean of five studies 36±3 120 5
 Apricots
2159 Apricots, raw, NS (Italy) 57 120 5
2160 Apricots, canned in light syrup (Riviera, Aliments 64 120 12
  Caneast Foods, Montreal, Canada)
2161 Apricots, dried (Wasco foods, Montreal, Canada) 32 60 10
 Banana, raw
2162 Banana (Canada) 46 120 12
2163 Banana (Israel) 49±6 120 12
2164 Banana (Italy) 58 120 13
2165 Banana (Canada) 58 120 15
2166 Banana, ripe (all yellow) (USA)15 51 120 13
2167 Banana, under-ripe (Denmark)7,17 30 120 6
2168 Banana, slightly under-ripe 42 120 11
  (yellow with green sections) (USA)15
2169 Banana, over-ripe (yellow flecked with brown) (USA)15 48 120 12
2170 Banana, over-ripe (Denmark)7,17 52 120 11
 mean of nine studies 48±3 120 11
2171 Cherries, raw, sour (Canada) 22 120 3
2172 Chico (Zapota zapotilla coville), raw (Philippines)4 40 120 12
2173 Dates, dried (Australia) 103±21 60 42
2174 Dates, NS type (Israel) 62±4 60 21
2175 Fruit Cocktail, canned (Delmonte Canadian 55 120 9
  Canners Ltd., Hamilton, Canada)
2176 Grapefruit, raw (Canada) 25 120 3
 Grapes, raw
2177 Grapes, NS (Canada) 43 120 7
2178 Grapes, NS (Italy) 49 120 9
2179 Kiwi fruit, Hayward (New Zealand)4 47±4 120 6
 Mango, raw
2180 Mango (Mangifera indica) (Philippines)4 41 120 8
2181 Mango, ripe (Mangifera indica) (India)6 60±16 120 9
 Oranges, raw
2182 Oranges, NS (Denmark) 31 120 3
2183 Orange, NS (Israel) 47±5 120 6
2184 Oranges, NS (Italy) 48 120 5
2185 Oranges (Sunkist, Van Nuys, CA, USA) 48 120 5
2186 Oranges NS (Canada) 51 120 6
 mean of five studies 45±4 120 5
 Papaya/Paw paw, raw
2187 Papaya/Paw paw, raw (Carica papaya) (Philippines)4 60 120 9
2188 Paw paw (papaya), ripe (India)6 60±16 120 17
 Peach, raw
2189 Peach, raw (Canada) 28 120 4
2190 Peach, raw (Italy) 56 120 5
2191 Peach, canned in light syrup (Delmonte, 52 120 9
  Canadian Canners Ltd., Canada)
 Pear, raw
2192 Pear, raw, NS (Canada) 33 120 4
2193 Pear, Winter Nellis, raw (New Zealand)4 34±4 120 4
2194 Pear, Bartlett, raw (Canada) 41 120 3
2195 Pear, raw, NS (Italy) 42 120 5
 mean of four studies 38±2 120 4
2196 Pear, canned in pear juice, Bartlett (Delmonte, 44 120 5
  Canadian Canners Ltd., Canada)
2197 Pineapple (Ananas comosus), raw (Philippines)4 51 120 8
 Plum, raw
2198 Plum, raw, NS (Canada) 24 120 3
2199 Plum, raw, NS (Italy) 53 120 6
2200 Raisins (Israel) 66±6 60 28
 
 FRUIT JUICES
 Apple juice
2201 Apple juice, unsweetened (USA)15 41 250 mL 12
2202 Apple juice, unsweetened (Allens, Toronto, Canada) 41 250 mL 12
2203 Grapefruit juice, unsweetened 48 250 mL 9
  (Sunpac, Toronto, Canada)
2204 Orange juice, reconstituted from 57±6 250 mL 15
  frozen concentrate (USA)15
2205 Pineapple juice, unsweetened (Dole Packaged 46 250 mL 15
  Foods, Toronto, Canada)
 
 LEGUMES AND NUTS
2206 Baked beans, canned haricot/navy beans 56 150 9
  in tomato sauce (Libby, McNeill & Libby,
  Chatham, Canada)
2207 Beans, dried, boiled, type NS (Italy)16 20 150 6
2208 Blackeyed beans/peas (Cowpeas), boiled (Canada) 50 150 15
 Butter Beans
2209 Butter beans, dried, soaked, cooked 1.25 h 29±8 150 6
  (South Africa)
2210 Butter beans, dried, boiled + 5 g sucrose 30±2 150 6
  (South Africa)
2211 Butter beans, dried, boiled + 10 g sucrose 31±2 150 6
  (South Africa)
2212 Butter beans, dried, boiled + 15 g sucrose 54±4 150 11
  (South Africa)
 Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans, Bengal gram), boiled
2213 Chickpeas, dried, boiled (Canada) 31 150 9
2214 Chickpeas (Canada) 33 150 10
2215 Chickpeas, canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo 42 150 9
  Foods Ltd., Toronto, Canada)
2216 Chickpeas, curry, canned (Canasia Foods Ltd., 41 150 7
  Scarborough, Canada)
 Haricot/Navy beans
2217 Haricot/Navy beans, pressure cooked at 15 psi 29 150 9
  for 25 min (King Grains, Toronto, Canada)
2218 Haricot/Navy beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 30 150 9
2219 Haricot/Navy beans, pressure cooked at15 psi 59 150 19
  for 25 min (King Grains, Canada)
 mean of three studies 39 150 12
 Kidney Beans
2220 Kidney beans (USA)4 23 150 6
2221 Kidney beans, dried, boiled (France) 23±1 150 6
2222 Kidney beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 42 150 10
2223 Kidney beans (Canada) 46 150 11
 mean of four studies 34±6 150 9
2224 Kidney beans, canned (Lancia-Bravo 52 150 9
  Foods Ltd., Canada)
 Lentils
2225 Lentils, type NS (USA)4 28 150 5
 Lentils, green
2226 Lentils, green, dried, boiled (Canada) 22 150 4
2227 Lentils, green, dried, boiled (France) 30±15 150 5
2228 Lentils, green, canned in brine 52 150 9
  (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)
 Lentils, red
2229 Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 18 150 3
2230 Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 21 150 4
2231 Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 31 150 6
2232 Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 32 150 6
 mean of four studies 26±4 150 5
2233 Lima beans, baby, frozen, reheated in microwave 32 150 10
  oven (York, Canada Packers, Toronto, Canada)
2234 Marrowfat peas, dried, boiled (USA)4 31 150 6
2235 Peas, dried, boiled (Australia) 22 150 2
 Pinto beans
2236 Pinto beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 39 150 10
2237 Pinto beans, canned in brine 45 150 10
  (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)
2238 Romano beans (Canada) 46 150 8
2239 Split peas, yellow, boiled 20 min 32 150 6
  (Nupack, Mississauga, Canada)
 
 MEAL REPLACEMENT & WEIGHT
  MANAGEMENT PRODUCTS
2240 Boost®, vanilla flavor (Mead Johnson, 53±4 250 mL 23
  Evansville, Ind, USA)
2241 Boost High-Protein®, vanilla flavor (Mead Johnson, 59±9 250 mL 21
  Evansville, Ind, USA)
2242 Chocolate soya weight management drink (UK)16 73±17 250 mL 26
2243 GatorPro®, chocolate flavor (Gatorade, 89±8 250 mL 40
  Chicago, IL, USA)
2244 Met-RX ®, vanilla (Met-RX substrate 58±16 250 mL 6
  Technology Inc., Irvine, CA, USA)
2245 Optifuel (Twin Laboratories Inc, 78±8 250 mL 27
  Ronkonkowa, NY, USA)
 
 MIXED MEALS AND CONVENIENCE FOODS
2246 Fish Fingers (Canada) 38±6 100 7
2247 Kugel (Polish dish containing egg noodles, sugar, 65±6 150 31
  cheese and raisins) (Israel)
 Pizza
2248 Pizza, cheese (Pillsbury Canada Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 60 100 16
2249 Pizza, plain baked dough, served with parmesan 80 100 22
  cheese and tomato sauce (Italy)
2250 Sausages, NS type (Canada) 28±6 100 1
2251 Stirfried vegetables with chicken and boiled 73±17 360 55
  white rice, home made (Australia)
2252 White boiled rice, grilled beefburger, 27 440 14
  cheese, and butter (France)
2253 White boiled rice, grilled beefburger, 22 440 11
  cheese and butter (France)
 White bread with accompaniments
2254 Classic French Baguette with 10 g butter and 59±16 100 25
  2 slices of ham (25 g) (France)
2255 White bread with butter (Canada) 59 100 28
2256 White bread with Haricot/navy beans (Canada) 42 100 12
2257 White bread with Haricot/navy beans (Canada) 54 100 16
2258 White bread with butter and skim milk cheese 62 100 23
  (Canada)
2259 White bread with skim milk cheese (Canada) 55 100 26
2260 White/wholemeal wheat bread with 51 100 23
  peanut butter (Canada)
2261 White/wholemeal wheat bread with 67 100 29
  peanut butter (Canada)
 
 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PRODUCTS
2262 Biosorb® drink, standard (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)4 50±16 250 mL 15
2263 EnsureTM, vanilla flavor (Abbott Laboratories, 75±10 250 mL 33
  Columbus, Ohio, USA)
2264 Nutridrink® enteral formula 61±19 250 mL 28
  (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)4
2265 Nutridrink Multi Fibre® enteral formula 53±19 250 mL 24
  (Nutricia N.V., Netherlands)4
 
 NUTS
 Peanuts
2266 Peanuts (Canada)4 13±6 50 1
2267 Peanuts (Mexico)4 23 50 2
 
 PASTA and NOODLES
2268 Capellini (Primo Foods Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 45 180 20
2269 Instant noodles (Mr Noodle, Vancouver, Canada) 47 180 19
 Mung bean noodles
2270 Lungkow beanthread noodles (National Cereals, 26 180 12
  Oils & Foodstuffs, Qingdao & Guangdong, China)
2271 Mung bean noodles, boiled (Thailand) 45 180 20
2272 Imitation mung bean noodles, boiled (Thailand) 51 - -
 Macaroni
2273 Macaroni, plain, boiled 5 min 45 180 22
  (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)
2274 Macaroni, plain, boiled (Turkey) 48 180 23
2275 Macaroni, boiled (Italy)7 56 180 27
 mean of three studies 50 180 24
2276 Macaroni and Cheese, boxed (Kraft General 64 180 33
  Foods Inc., Don Mills, Ontario, Canada)
 Rice noodles/pasta
2277 Rice noodles made from IR42 (high amylose) 45 - -
  rice flour, boiled for 22 min (Philippines)
2278 Rice noodles made from IR42 (high amylose) 46 - -
  rice flour, boiled for 22 min (Philippines)
2279 Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon (National Cereals, 58 180 23
  Oils & Foodstuffs, China)
 Spaghetti
2280 Spaghetti, homemade, durum wheat, 59 180 28
  no monoglyceride, boiled 6 min (Denmark)
2281 Spaghetti, protein enriched, boiled 7 min 27 180 14
  (Catelli Plus, Catelli Ltd., Montreal, Canada)
 Spaghetti, white, boiled 5 min
2282 Boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 32 180 15
2283 Boiled 5 min (Canada) 34 180 16
2284 Boiled 5 min (Canada) 40 180 19
2285 Boiled 5 min (Middle East) 44 180 21
 mean of four studies 38±3 180 18
 Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 10-15 min
2286 White, durum wheat, boiled 12 min (Denmark) 34 180 16
2287 Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 32 180 15
2288 Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 36 180 17
2289 Boiled 15 min (Canada) 41 180 20
 mean of four studies 36±2 180 17
2290 Spaghetti, Durum wheat, boiled 20 min (USA) 64±15 180 27
 Spaghetti, white, boiled
2291 White (Denmark) 33 180 16
2292 White, durum wheat (Catelli Ltd, Montreal, Canada)5 34 180 16
2293 White (Australia)5 38 180 17
2294 White (Israel) 42±7 180 20
2295 White (Canada) 42 180 20
2296 White (Italy) 42 180 19
2297 White (Canada) 45 180 22
2298 White (Canada) 48 180 23
 mean of eight studies 41±2 180 19
2299 Spaghetti, wholemeal, boiled (Australia)5 32 180 14
2300 Star Pastina, white, boiled 5 min 38 180 18
  (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)
2301 Tortellini, cheese (Stouffer, Nestlé, Don Mills, Canada) 50 180 10
2302 Wheat (egg) noodles, boiled (Thailand) 57 - -
 
 SNACK FOODS AND CONFECTIONERY
2303 Brownies, containing coconut flour (Philippines) 43 50 12
2304 Burger RingsTM, barbeque-flavored (Smith's Snack 90±16 50 28
  Food Co, Chatswood, NSW, Australia)
2305 Chocolate crinkles, containing coconut flour 54 50 12
  (Philippines)
2306 Chocolate, milk, plain, low-sugar 35±16 50 8
  with maltitol (Belgium)4
2307 Corn chips, NachipsTM 74 50 21
  (Old El Paso Foods Co., Canada)
2308 Granola bar, containing coconut flour (Philippines) 50 50 10
2309 Juicy cereal bar (Stavnata Tycinka FIT, 85±16 30 17
  Usovsko, Czech Republic)
 
 SPORTS (ENERGY) BARS
2310 Clif bar, Cookies & Cream flavor 101±6 65 49
  (Clif Bar Inc, Berkeley, CA, USA)
2311 MET-Rx Bar, vanilla flavor 74±12 65 24
  (Met-Rx Sibstrate Technology Inc, Irvine, CA, USA)
2312 Power bar®, chocolate (Powerfood Inc, 83±11 65 37
  Berkeley, CA, USA)
2313 PR-bar, Cookies 'N Cream flavor 81±12 65 23
  (Twin Laboratories Inc, Ronkonkowa, NY, USA)
 
 SOUPS
2314 Black Bean soup (Wil-Pack Foods, 64 250 17
  San Pedro, CA, USA)
2315 Green Pea, canned (Campbell Soup Co Ltd., 66 250 27
  Toronto, Canada)
2316 Lentil, canned (Unico, Concord, Canada) 44 250 9
2317 Noodle soup (traditional Turkish soup 1 250 0
  with stock and noodles)
2318 Split Pea (Wil-Pak Foods, USA) 60 250 16
2319 Tarhana soup (traditional Turkish soup with 20 - -
  wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato, peppers)
2320 Tomato soup (Canada) 38±9 250 6
 
 SUGARS, SYRUPS, AND SUGAR ALCOHOLS
 Fructose
2321 50 g portion 20±5 10 2
2322 50 g portion 21 10 2
2323 50 g portion (Sigma Chemical Company, 24 10 2
  St. Louis, MO, USA)15
2324 25 g portion, fed with oats19 25 10 2
 mean of four studies 23±1 10 2
 Glucose
2325 50 g portion (dextrose)5 85 10 9
2326 25 g portion, fed with oats19 92 10 9
2327 50 g portion5 93 10 9
2328 50 g portion 96 10 10
 mean of four studies 92±2 10 9
 Glucose consumed with American ginseng
  (Panax quinquefolius L.)
2329 25 g glucose (Glucodex solution, Rougier Inc., 78 10 8
  Chambly, Quebec) with 3 g dried ginseng4,11
2330 25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min 80 10 8
  after 3 g dried ginseng4,11
2331 100 g Glucose + 20 g cellulose20 103±5 10 10
  (CSIR Biochemical Unit, New Delhi, India)
 Glucose consumed with a mixed meal
2332 30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 55 250 19
  30 g cheese, 10 g butter (total meal contained
  50 g carbohydrate) (France)
2333 30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 57 250 20
  30 g cheese, 10 g butter (total meal contained
  50 g carbohydrate) (France)
2334 25 g glucose with 30 g oat bran flour (Natureal® 80 10 8
  GI-flour, Finn Cereal, Vantaa, Finland)4
2335 Locust honey (Romania)4,11 32 25 7
 Lactose
2336 50 g portion (Sigma Chemical Company, USA)15 43 10 4
2337 25 g portion, fed with oats19 48 10 5
 Sucrose
2338 50 g portion (Sigma Chemical Company, USA)15 58 10 6
2339 50 g portion 59±10 10 6
2340 50 g portion 60 10 6
2341 25 g portion, fed with oats19 64 10 6
2342 30 g portion16 82 10 8
2343 25 g portion4 110±21 10 11
 mean of six studies 72±8 10 7
 Sugar alcohols and sugar-replacement compounds -
  GI values based on the assumption that their
  carbohydrate is available
2344 Isomalt (Sudzucker AG, Mannheim, Germany)21 2±1 10 0
2345 Isomaltulose, PalatinoseTM 32±3 10 3
  (Sudzucker AG, Mannheim, Germany)21
 Lactitol
2346 25 g lactitol5,22 -1±7 10 0
2347 25 g lactitol MC (Danisco sweeteners, Surrey, UK)22 3±1 10 0
 Litesse
2348 25 g Litesse II, bulking agent with polydextrose and 7±2 10 1
  sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)22
2349 25 g Litesse III ultra, bulking agent with polydextrose 4±2 10 0
  and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)22
2350 Lycasin® HBC, syrup containing 50-55% maltitol, 47±10 10 5
  5-8% sorbitol and 35-40% hydrogenated
  oligo-scaccharides (lab 2212, Roquette, France)21
2351 Lycasin® HBC, syrup containing 50-55% maltitol, 25±6 10 3
  5-8% sorbitol and 35-40% hydrogenated
  oligo-scaccharides (lab 2212, Roquette, France)21
 Maltitol-based sweeteners or bulking agents
2352 Maltitol, 50 g portion (Japan)21 26 10 3
2353 25 g Malbit CR (87% maltitol) (Cerestar, 30±12 10 3
  Vilvoorde, Belgium)22
2354 25 g Maltidex 100 (> 72% maltitol) 44±11 10 4
  (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)22
2355 Maltitol and Sucrose mixture (25 g Maltitol + 46 10 5
  25 g Sucrose) (Japan)21
2356 25 g Malbit CH (99% maltitol) 73±29 10 7
  (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)22
2357 25 g Maltidex 200 (50% maltitol) 89±28 10 9
  (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)22
2358 Tagatose sugar replacement, Gaio® 3±1 10 0
  (Arla Foods, Germany)21
 Xylitol
2359 25 g xylitol22 7±7 10 1
2360 25 g Xylitol C (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)22 8±2 10 1
 
 VEGETABLES
2361 Broad beans (Canada)4 79±16 80 9
 Green peas
2362 Pea, cooked (Israel) 35±4 80 5
2363 Pea, frozen, boiled (Canada)4 39 80 3
 Sweet corn
2364 Sweet corn, cooked (Israel) 52±7 150 17
2365 Sweet corn (Canada) 59±11 80 11
2366 Sweet corn, boiled (USA)5 60 80 11
 mean of three studies 57 80 13
2367 Sweet corn, whole kernel, diet-pack, Featherweight, 46 80 6
  canned, drained, heated (USA)5
2368 Sweet corn, frozen, heated in microwave (Green 47 80 7
  Giant, Pillsbury Canada Ltd., Toronto, Canada)
 Root vegetables
2369 Beetroot (Canada)4 64±16 80 4
 Carrots
2370 Carrots, raw (Romania)4,11 16 80 1
2371 Carrots, NS (Canada)4 92±20 80 6
2372 Carrots, peeled, boiled, ground to smooth paste 60±17 80 4
  (Australia)
2373 Cassava, boiled, with salt (Kenya, Africa) 46 100 12
2374 Parsnips (Canada)4 97±19 80 12
 Potato
 Baked potato
2375 Ontario, white, baked in skin (Canada) 60 150 18
 Baked, Russet Burbank potatoes
2376 Russet, baked without fat (Canada) 56 150 17
2377 Russet, baked without fat, 45-60 min (USA)5 78 150 23
2378 Russet, baked without fat (USA)5 94 150 28
 mean of three studies 76 150 23
 Boiled potato
2379 Desiree, peeled, quartered, boiled 15 min in 77±17 150 13
  unsalted water (UK)
2380 Maris Peer potato, peeled, quartered, boiled 15 min 94±16 150 27
  in unsalted water (UK)
2381 Nardine, boiled (New Zealand) 70±17 150 18
2382 Ontario, white, peeled, cut into cubes, boiled in 58 150 16
  salted water 15 min (Canada)
2383 Prince Edward Island, peeled, cubed, boiled in 63 150 11
  salted water 15 min (Canada)
 Boiled/cooked, white/Type NS
2384 Type NS (Kenya, Africa) 24 150 7
2385 White, cooked (Romania)4,11 41 150 12
2386 Potatoes (Germany) 49 150 15
2387 White, boiled (Canada) 54 150 15
2388 Type NS, boiled 19 min (Denmark) 56 150 11
2389 Potatoes, white (Italy) 61 150 16
2390 Type NS, peeled, boiled (Lebanon) 85 150 26
 mean of seven studies 53±7 150 14
 Boiled potato cooked then cooled
2391 Type NS, peeled, boiled and then cooled to 26oC 54 150 16
  (Lebanon)
 Canned potatoes
2392 Prince Edward Island, canned, heated in microwave 61 150 11
  (Avon, Cobi Foods Inc., Port Williams, Canada)
 French Fries
2393 French fries, frozen, reheated in microwave 75 150 22
  (Cavendish Farms, New Annan, Canada)
 Instant Mashed potato
2394 Instant (France) 74±12 150 15
2395 Instant (Carnation Foods Co. Ltd., Manitoba, Canada) 86 150 17
2396 Instant (Canada) 88 150 18
2397 Instant (UK) 95±16 150 17
 mean of four studies 86±4 150 17
 Mashed potato
2398 Type NS (Canada) 67 150 13
2399 Ontario, white, peeled, cubed, boiled 15 min, 73 150 20
  mashed (Canada)
2400 Prince Edward Island, peeled, cubed, boiled 15 min 73 150 13
  mashed (Canada)
 mean of three studies 71 150 15
 Microwaved potato
2401 Type NS, microwaved (USA)4 82 150 27
 New Potato
2402 New (Canada) 47 150 10
2403 New (Canada) 54 150 11
 Steamed potato
2404 Potato dumplings (60% white potatoes, 40% white 52 150 23
  wheat flour, boiled in salted water), consumed with
  olive oil, tomato sauce and parmesan cheese (Italy)
 Sweet potato
2405 Sweet potato, NS (Canada) 48±6 150 16
2406 Sweet potato, peeled, cubed, boiled in salted water 59 150 18
  15 min (Canada)
2407 Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 78±6 150 20
 mean of three studies 62 150 19
 Swede
2408 Swede (rutabaga) (Canada)4 72±8 150 7
 Tapioca
2409 Tapioca boiled with milk (General Mills Canada Inc., 81 250 14
  Etobicoke, Canada)
2410 Tapioca, boiled (India)6 93±2 250 17
 Yam
2411 Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 25±4 150 9
2412 Yam (Canada) 51±12 150 18
 
 INDIGENOUS OR TRADITIONAL FOODS
  OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS
 AFRICAN
2413 Cassava, boiled, with salt (Kenya) 46 100 12
2414 Ga Kenkey, prepared from fermented cornmeal 44±6 150 18
  (Zea mays) (Ghana)23
2415 Gari, roasted cassava dough (Manihot utilissima) 49±3 100 13
  (Ghana)23
2416 Green plantain (musa paradisiaca), boiled (Ghana)23 41±5 120 (raw) 15
2417 Maize meal porridge/gruel (Kenya) 109 50 (dry) 41
2418 Millet flour porridge/gruel (Kenya) 107 - -
2419 White rice (Oryza sativa), boiled (Ghana)23 40±6 150 17
2420 White yam (Dyscoria species) (Ghana)23 65±7 150 26
 
 ARABIC AND TURKISH
2421 Kibbeh saynieh (made with lamb and burghul) 61±16 120 9
2422 Majadra (Syrian, lentils and rice) 24±5 250 10
2423 Middle Eastern flatbread 97±29 30 16
2424 Moroccan Couscous (stew of semolina, 58±9 250 17
  chickpeas, vegetables)
2425 Tarhana soup (wheat flour, yoghurt, 20 - -
  tomato, green pepper)
2426 Turkish bread, white wheat flour 87 30 15
2427 Turkish bread, whole wheat 49 30 8
2428 Turkish noodle soup 1 250 0
 
 ASIAN
2429 Lungkow beanthread (National Cereals, 26 180 12
  Oils & Foodstuffs, Qingdao & Guangdong, China)
2430 Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon (National Cereals, China) 58 180 23
2431 Stirfried vegetables, chicken and rice, 73±17 360 55
  home made (Australia)
 
 ASIAN INDIAN
2432 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum), popped, 97±19 30 18
  eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener
2433 Appam (thin pancake made from fermented 90±4 250 58
  rice flour batter with tender coconut)
  eaten with Bengal gram curry6
2434 Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum), eaten as 55±13 75 (dry) 28
  roasted bread made from bajra flour
2435 Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum) 67 75 (dry) 34
2436 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 37 150 14
 Chapatti
2437 Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (25:75) composite flour, 66±10 60 20
  served with bottle gourd and tomato curry
2438 Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (50:50) composite flour, 76±20 60 23
  served with bottle gourd amd tomato curry
2439 Chapatti, baisen (Pakistan) 27 165 - -
2440 Chapatti, bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum) 67 - -
2441 Chapatti, barley 37 - -
2442 Chapatti, maize (Zea mays) 64 - -
2443 Chapatti, wheat, served with bottle gourd 66±9 60 21
  and tomato curry
2444 Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram 81±4 200 41
  (Phaseolus aureus) dhal
2445 Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; 35±4 100 7
  dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina
2446 Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; 31±6 150 9
  dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina
2447 Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, 77±3 150 30
  fermented and fried) with chutney
2448 Green gram, whole with varagu 57±6 80 (dry) 29
  (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked
2449 Green gram dhal with varagu, pressure cooked 78±12 78 (dry) 39
2450 Idiappam (steamed rice flour dough with 86±4 250 52
  tender coconut) eaten with Bengal gram curry6
2451 Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, 77±2 250 40
  ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney
2452 Jowar, roasted bread made from Jowar flour 77±8 70 (dry) 39
  (Sorghum vulgare)
2453 Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted 24±4 50 7
  legume powder, fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup
2454 Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted 29±4 50 9
  legume powder, fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup
2455 Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana)6 84 70 (dry) 42
2456 Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana) flour eaten 104±13 70 (dry) 52
  as roasted bread
2457 Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, 90±3 250 47
  pressure cooked)
2458 Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with 82±2 150 34
  potato palya (mashed potato)
2459 Puttu (rice flour, steamed with tender coconut) 79±4 250 58
  eaten with Bengal gram curry6
2460 Rice (Oryza Sativa), boiled served with bottle gourd 69±15 150 26
  and tomato curry
 Semolina
2461 Semolina (Triticum aestivum), steamed 55±9 67 (dry) 28
2462 Semolina (Triticum aestivum), pre-roasted 76±6 67 (dry) 38
2463 Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented black 46±12 71 (dry) 23
  gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo)
2464 Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented 62±20 71 (dry) 31
  green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus)
2465 Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented 54±7 71 (dry) 27
  bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietum)
2466 Varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked 68±8 76 (dry) 34
2467 Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water) 67±3 150 28
2468 Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; 18±3 150 6
  roasted and cooked in water)
2469 Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; 19±3 150 6
  roasted and cooked in water)
2470 Varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked 68±8 76 (dry) 34
 
 ISRAELI
2471 Melawach (dough made from white wheat flour 61±10 115 32
  and butter, fried)
2472 Melawach 71±7 115 38
2473 Melawach + 15 g locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua) 31±6 130 16
  fiber (soluble)
2474 Melawach + 15 g maize cob fiber (insoluble) 59±10 130 31
2475 Melawach + 15 g lupin (Lupinus albus) fiber 72±10 130 38
 
 PACIFIC ISLANDERS
2476 Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 78±6 150 20
2477 Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 25±4 150 9
 
 PIMA INDIAN
2478 Mesquite cakes (Prosopis velutina)4 25±3 60 1
 
 SOUTH AMERICAN
2479 Black Beans 30 150 7
2480 Brown beans 38 150 9
2481 Burrito (made from scrambled eggs, tomato, onions, 37±4 - -
  vegeatble oil, boiled pinto beans and flour tortilla)
2482 Burrito (made from scrambled eggs, tomato, onions, 29±3 - -
  vegeatble oil, boiled pinto beans and flour tortilla)
  consumed with nopales (prickly pear cactus)
2483 Chilaquiles (casserole made from corn tortilla, 51±9 - -
  vegetable oil, tomato sauce, cheese, boiled pinto beans)
2484 Chilaquiles (casserole made from corn tortilla, 35±8 - -
  vegetable oil, tomato sauce, cheese, boiled pinto beans),
  consumed with nopales (prickly pear cactus)
2485 Nopales (prickly pear cactus) 7 100 0
2486 Quesadillas (made from low-fat cheese, avocado, 36±3 - -
  boiled pinto beans and flour tortilla)
2487 Quesadillas (made from low-fat cheese, avocado, 25±4 - -
  boiled pinto beans and flour tortilla) consumed with
  nopales (prickly pear cactus)
 
 
Footnotes
1. NS, not specified; AUC, area under the curve. Serving sizes in grams unless otherwise specified.

2. Mean ± SEM. Two GI values are shown for each food - one in which glucose sugar was used as the reference food and one in which white bread was used as the reference food.

3. Estimated by multiplying the food's listed GI value with glucose as the reference food by the listed g carbohydrate per serving and dividing by 100.

4. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 25 g carbohydrate.

5. GI calculated from the 180 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.

6. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 75 g carbohydrate.

7. GI calculated from the 240 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.

8. GI value included in original article determined from AUC measured over 3 h for only 4 time points (0, 1, 2, and 3 h).

9. GI corrected for added milk and adjusted to represent a 50 g carbohydrate portion size.

10. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 12.5 g carbohydrate.

11. GI calculated from the 120 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.

12. GI value included in original article determined from AUC measured over 3 h for only 5 time points (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min).

13. Wheat chapatti was used as the reference food and given a GI of 100. The GI of the test food was measured by expressing the glucose AUC value for the test food as a percentage of the AUC value for wheat chapatti.

14. M Champ (INRA, France) and V Lang (Danone Vitapole Company, France), unpublished observations, 1998.

15. GI calculated from the 300 min AUC data included in the original article using the AUC food/AUC reference food formula.

16. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 30 g carbohydrate.

17. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 20 g carbohydrate.

18. Sydney University's Glycemic Index Research Service (Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Australia), unpublished observations, 1995-2007.

19. GI for sugars calculated from the glycemic response for a meal of sugar and rolled oats minus the glycemic response for the oats alone.

20. Portions of the test food and the reference food contained 100 g carbohydrate.

21. Total weight of the test food was 50 g, whereas the reference food contained 50 g available carbohydrate. The carbohydrate content of the test food was assumed to be 100% available, which may be an overestimation.

22. Total weight of the test food was 25 g, whereas the reference food contained 25 g available carbohydrate. The carbohydrate content of the test food was assumed to be 100% available, which may be an overestimation.

23. Eaten as part of a mixed meal with fish, tomato, and onion sauce.

24. GI value included in original article determined from AUC measured over 2 h for only 5 time points (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min).

25. GI value included in original article determined from AUC measured over 2 h for only 4 time points (0, 30, 60 and 120 min).


Last modified: December 16, 2008

Advertisment
Never Miss An Update!
Advertisment
I comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information. You can verify my HONcode certificate here.