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On-line Diabetes Resources

Part 14: Blood Glucose Meters

By David Mendosa

Last Update: May 28, 2015

This Web page brings together in one place descriptions of and links to only those Web pages dealing with meters for diabetes management, but is linked to the 15 other On-line Diabetes Resources pages dealing with other Web pages, other parts of the Internet, and other on-line services. Those links that I think are especially valuable are marked in red. This page now also includes a section for A1C meters and kits.

Existing Non-invasive and/or Continuous Meters

    Added March 14, 2008:

  1. Abbott Diabetes Care announced on March 13 that the Food and Drug Administration has finally approved its FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. The FreeStyle Navigator system will be available in the second quarter of 2008 by prescription only. It received CE Mark in June 2007 and has been available outside the United States since September 2007. The URL is

  2. DexCom Inc. in San Diego offers a short-term sensor that wirelessly transmits glucose readings to a hand-held receiver, providing real time continuous measurements. The company is also developing the first long-term implantable sensor for the continuous monitoring of glucose in people with diabetes. Full disclosure: I own stock in DexCom (ticker symbol DXCM). The URL is

    Updated July 3, 2007:

  3. Medtronic Diabetes in Northridge, California, offers two continuous sensors for patient use:

    Added April 27, 2007:

  4. A. Menarini , headquartered in Florence, Italy, offers its GlucoDay S continuous glucose monitor in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, France, Germany, UK, Sweden, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, and Slovenia. The URL is

    Updated April 23, 2009:

  5. OrSense Ltd., in Nes Ziona, Israel, says that it is developing the NBM-200G continuous non-invasive monitoring system. But it is still limited to investigational use and has not been approved for sale anywhere. The URL is

    New Books About Noninvasive Glucose Sensors

    • There have been many attempts over last few decades to find a means for measuring glucose without drawing blood or causing pain. But in spite of brilliant, determined, and resourceful investigators and the investment of hundreds of millions of dollars, no one has yet succeeded. As a scientist and technical executive in the industry for many years, Dr. John L. Smith participated in the evaluation of more than a hundred such attempts, only to see the same technology investigated time and time again, primarily because no one had detailed why previous attempts had not succeeded. He is the former CEO of Fovioptics and earlier the chief scientific officer of LifeScan. In a 24-year career he professionally evaluated more than 100 noninvasive meter technologies. Dr. Smith wrote the first edition of a book on the subject in 2006, and I hosted it here. Nine years later, while we have yet to witness success, many more attempts have been made, and a fourth revised and expanded edition of the book, The Pursuit of Noninvasive Glucose: “Hunting the Deceitful Turkey," is now complete and has once again been made available for everyone to read. It is dedicated to the hope that someday, this long-sought goal will finally be achieved. You can read the entire book at The Pursuit of Noninvsive Glucose, Fourth Edition.pdf

      Added September 21, 2009:
      Guy Bechet has translated this book into French at It's not a computerized translation, so it was quite an effort. There is also a brief summary of the book with some other notes attached at

      Added February 13, 2010:

    • A new technical book with thorough descriptions of the problems involved in developing non-invasive senors just appeared. The book is In Vivo Glucose Sensing (Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications) and is edited by David Cunningham of Abbott and Julie Strenken.

      Added February 14, 2012:

    • An even bigger and more technical book is Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues. Edited by Valery V. Tuchin, CRC Press in Boca Raton, Florida, published this 709-page book in 2009.

    Current Blood Glucose Meters

    1. Abbott Laboratories in Abbott Park, Illinois, which purchased MediSense Inc. in 1996 and TheraSense in 2004, manufactures several different blood glucose meters:

      • Precision Xtra. This meter tests both blood glucose and blood ketones. It measures ß-hydroxybutyric acid, the predominant ketone body and indicates the real time results in 30 seconds as an accurate number. Blood glucose testing now takes 10 seconds (down to 5 seconds by fall 2005) and requires only a 1.5µL (1.5 microliters) drop of blood, down to 0.6µL (0.6 microliters) by fall 2005. It has a 450 test result memory recording time and date and shows 7, 14, and 28 day averages. Its data port allows it to work with diabetes management software. This meter is plasma-blood calibrated. In a co-branding agreement with PolyMedica Corp. its Liberty subsidiary sells the Precision Xtra as the Optium blood glucose meter (except the Optium does not test ketones). The URL is

        Update June 3, 2006:

      • ReliOn Ultima. This is the ultra-low price meter at Wal-Mart and Sam's Club stores. The meter requires a 0.6µL (0.6 microliter) drop of blood and displays test results in 5 seconds. SolarTek, a subsidiary of the MediSense division of Abbott Laboratories, markets it exclusively through Wal-Mart and Sam's Club under the ReliOn brand where it currently sells for $8.88; 50 test strips sell for $21.97. The URL is

      • The five TheraSense meters are:

        • FreeStyle. This meter, which the company began shipping June 28, 2000, eliminates virtually all the pain of testing by allowing testing at sites other than fingertips. It takes a sample of only 0.3µL (0.3 microliters), which is a blood drop about the size of a pinhead, or a fraction of the smallest sample required by any other blood glucose monitoring system. It tests in an average of 15 seconds. It is plasma-calibrated. The data port allows users to download readings to a PC (software pending clearance by the Food and Drug Administration). The company says that the meter has minimal interference from substances in the blood such as vitamin C or acetaminophen, which result in inaccurate readings on many other systems.

        • FreeStyle Tracker. This new meter, which the FDA approved June 14, 2002, combines a blood glucose meter, diabetes manager, and Handspring Visor personal digital assistant (PDA) all in one compact device. This meter has the same technology as the original FreeStyle meter (above). Only a few were every sold, because the Handspring Visor was discontinued soon after the FreeStyle Tracker came out.

          Two most positive reviews are on-line at and

        • FreeStyle Flash. Introduced in October 2003, the FreeStyle Flash is the world's smallest blood glucose meter. And no other meter takes a smaller blood sample, only 0.3µL (0.3 microliters). Its test time—seven seconds—places it as one of the fastest meters available.

          Updated January 10, 2007:

        • FreeStyle Freedom. The FreeStyle Freedom takes the same small blood sample as other FreeStyle meters  —  only 0.3µL (0.3 microliters) — but is faster. Its test time is five seconds.

          Updated April 17, 2007:

        • FreeStyle Lite. To be available in May 2007, this new FreeStyle meter requires no calibration (coding). Like other FreeStyle meters, the Lite takes a small blood sample, only 0.3µL (0.3 microliters). It returns blood glucose results in an average of just five seconds. Abbott's press release is online at

      The URL is

    2. Acon Laboratories Inc. in San Diego offers the On-Call Now blood glucose monitoring system internationally. It is not yet available in the United States or Canada, but a company spokesman tells me that we can expect a U.S. version later in 2005. Another company spokesperson tells me that it has the same performance characteristics as its Verify blood glucose monitoring system, which OEMs market. It requires a 5µL (5 microliters) drop of blood, requires 10 to 40 seconds to test, and it has a data port. The company tells me that it is "competitively priced" with test strips that are less expensive than the competition. The URL is

      Updated April 14, 2008:

    3. Agamatrix Inc. in Salem, New Hampshire, develops and manufactures blood glucose monitoring products. Its first meters, the Wave 1, is co-branded under different names. Liberty Medical sells it as the Liberty meter. Similar AgaMatrix meters are also available in Europe, China, and Canada.

      Now AgaMatrix brands its meters as "WaveSense" meters. The first of the WaveSense meters was the WaveSense KeyNote, which like the company's first meters requires coding. An extension of the KeyNote line is the KeyNote Pro for medical professionals (like nurses) who need a meter that will automatically eject the test strip.

      Following the WaveSense KeyNote is the WaveSense Presto, which is also a low-cost device, but unlike the KeyNote requires no coding.

      The ultimate meter is the WaveSense Jazz. The initial implementation of this meter uses a USB connection to download readings. But the company will follow with a Bluetooth meter. The URL is

      Added March 31, 2005:

    4. Apex Biotechnology Corp. in Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, makes (or has made) two or three blood glucose monitoring systems: The GlucoSure (which may no longer be made), the GlucoSure II, and the MultiSure. They probably are not available in the U.S. The URL (in Chinese) is

      Updated January 26, 2010:

    5. Arkray USA in Edina, Minnesota, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Arkray Inc. of Kyoto, Japan. They currently offer four blood glucose monitoring systems. The Arkray meters are:

      • The Glucocard 01-mini meter requires a blood sample of 0.3µL (0.3 microliters) and returns results in 7 seconds.

      • The Glucocard 01 meter requires a blood sample of 0.3µL (0.3 microliters) and returns results in 7 seconds.

      • The Glucocard X-Meter requires a blood sample of approximately 3µL (3 microliters) and returns results in 5 seconds.

      • The Glucocard Vital requires a blood sample of 0.5µL (0.3 microliters) and returns results in 7 seconds.

      The URL is

      Added: July 18, 2006:

    6. Aventir Biotech LLC in Carlsbad, California, offers the Glucose Pilot Blood Glucose Monitoring System in the U.S. This new meter requires a blood sample of 1µL (1 microliter) and returns results in 5 seconds. TianJin New Bay Bioresearch Co. Ltd in Tianjin, PR China, is the manufacturer of this meter. The Aventir Biotech website is
      A product website is under development at

      Updated November 15, 2009:

    7. Bayer Corporation in Tarrytown, New York, manufacturers three different blood glucose meters.

      The meters are:

      • The Breeze2 uses a disc of 10 strips, which does away with handling individual test strips. It is the first meter that requires no coding (calibration). It requires only a 1µL (1 microliter) drop of blood and requires 5 seconds to test.

      • The Contour requires only a 0.6µL (0.6 microliter) drop of blood and 5 second test time. It requires no coding. Its data port allows it to work with diabetes management software.

      • The Contour USB also requires only a 0.6µL (0.6 microliter) drop of blood and 5 second test time and also requires no coding. It is the first blood glucose meter with built in diabetes management software.

      The URL is

    8. Becton Dickinson & Co. in Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, and Sanvita Inc., the medical products distribution division of Chronic Care Solutions Holding Inc., announced in January 2007, that, “Sanvita will continue to supply test strips that work with BD Logic and Paradigm Link monitors through pharmacies, mail-order providers, and health plans well into the future. Sanvita also plans to launch exciting new products in the future.” The URL is

      Updated July 16, 2006:

    9. BioNime Corporation in Dali City, Taichung County, Taiwan, manufactures the Rightest GM300 Blood Glucose Monitoring System. The URL is

      Added July 25, 2010:

    10. BioSense Medical Devices in Duluth, Georgia, offers the Solo V2 blood glucose monitoring system. The Solo V2 features fully audible technology and doesn't require coding. It returns a result in 6 seconds and takes 0.7µL (0.7 microliters). The URL is

      Updated November 10, 2006:

    11. Cardiocom in Chanhassen, Minnesota, is shipping the GlucoCom Blood Glucose Meter and the AutoLink telecommunications device. The GlucoCom returns a result in 7 seconds and takes 0.7µL (0.7 microliters). The URL is

      New August 8, 2010:

    12. Diabetic Supply of Suncoast in Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, offers three blood glucose meters. The Advocate and the Advocate Redi-Code are talking meters. The Advocate Duo combines a blood glucose meter and blood pressure monitor. The URL is

      Updated August 8, 2010:

    13. Diagnostic Devices Inc. in Charlotte, North Carolina, at (800) 366-5901, has just introduced a new talking blood glucose meter called the Prodigy Voice.

      The early DDI meter for the sight-impaired, the Prodigy AutoCode, is still available. The URL is

      Added March 31, 2005:

    14. Eumed Biotechnology Co. Ltd., in Hsin Chu Hsien, Taiwan, makes two blood glucose monitoring systems: the EUSure and the EUKare. Each requires a blood sample of 3µL (3 microliters) and provides results 15 seconds. They probably are not available in the U.S. The URL is

      Added July 9, 2009:

    15. Everymed AB in Sweden makes the EveryX3 blood glucose meter. Thanks to Jonas, a correspondent in Sweden, for bringing this meter to my attention. "What I like with this one is that it is so automatic that you don't even need to look at yourself doing the procedure," Jonas writes. "It has the strips built in as well as the lancet and you just put your finger at the right place and punch a button." The website is only in Swedish, which I don't read, and the meter is probably not available in the U.S. The URL is

    16. Fifty50 Diabetes Supply Pharmacy in Carrollton, Texas, offers one private-labeled meter, the FIFTY 50 Control Blood Glucose Monitoring System. It requires a blood sample of 1µL (1 microliter) and provides results 5 seconds. It lists for $19.95. The URL is

      Added May 26, 2006:

    17. GenExel-Sein Inc. with headquarters in South Korea is the developer of the Duo-Care device, which combines a blood glucose monitor with a wrist blood pressure monitor. The DuoCare’s blood glucose test returns results in only five seconds. The URL is

    18. HMD Bio Medical in Titusville, Florida, offers the GlucoLab meter. It requires a small blood sample; just 1.0µL (1.0 microliters), and gives results in 5 seconds. The URL is

    19. Glucoplus Inc. in Montreal, Québec, Canada, sells the GlucoPlus Glucose Monitoring System. It requires a small blood sample; just 1.5µL (1.5 microliters), and gives results in less than 15 seconds. The URL is

      Added October 12, 2007:

    20. Health & Life Co., Ltd in Chung Ho City, Taiwan, offers the HL 588 Blood Glucose Meter. It has a 5 second response time and requires a 0.8 microliter blood sample. The URL is

    21. HemoCue AB in Ängelholm, Sweden, makes glucose systems based on a glucose dehydrogenase method consisting of a small dedicated analyzer and a unique disposable microcuvette. The systems combine the precision and accuracy of a central laboratory with the speed and convenience of obtaining results at the point-of-care. They require 5µL (5 microliters) of capillary, venous, or arterial blood and produce immediate, accurate results over a wide range—0 to 400 mg/dl. It takes one to 1.5 minutes to provide results, which are technique-independent and have no inherent limitations related to hematocrit or known drug interferences and no calibration or microcuvette batch-to-batch variations. Since its market entry in the 1990s, HemoCue has been primarily used in hospitals and point-of-care facilities, has been evaluated in several studies, and has been used as the reference assay in the testing of glucose meters. HemoCue plans to start marketing its Glucose 201 Analyzer to the home market by the end of 2003. It is currently available for $600 plus about $1 for each microcuvette. The URL is

    22. Home Diagnostics Inc. in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, currently manufacturers four blood glucose systems. They are available nationwide at major pharmacies and through mail-order suppliers. Other retailers sell the products under their own brand names. The meters are:

      • The Sidekick Testing System. This disposable system is quite small and contains a meter and a vial of 50 test strips. There is no coding required. it uses 1µL (1 microliter) of blood and provides results in less than 10 seconds.

      • TrueTrack Smart System. This meter requires a tiny blood sample — 1µL (1 microliters) — provides results in 10 seconds. This meter has a data port.

      • TrackEASE Smart System. Only available through mail-order, home medical equipment and durable medical equipment distributors, the TrackEASE Smart System requires a tiny blood sample — just 1µL (1 microliters) — and provides results in just 10 seconds.

      • Prestige IQ. This meter has a data port. The displayed test results are about the largest size of any meter.

      The URL is

    23. Hypoguard, a wholly owned subsidiary of Arkray Inc. of Kyoto, Japan, now manufacturers and distributes several blood glucose meters for the home market:

      • Assure 3 and Advance Intuition. These are the same meter, except the Assure 3 is only sold to institutions and the Advance Intuition is sold only to retailers. Each require only a 3µL (3 microliter) drop of blood and display test results in 10 seconds. These meters are plasma referenced.

      • Assure II Blood Glucose System. Hypoguard introduced this meter in March 2002. It requires only a 3µL (3 microliters) drop of blood and displays test results in 30 seconds. The meter is plasma referenced. It stores 10 readings but lacks a data port.

      • Assure Blood Glucose System. A predecessor company, Chronimed, introduced this meter in August 1998. It requires a 10µL (10 microliter) drop of blood and displays test results in about 30 seconds.

      • QuickTek Blood Glucose System. This meter is competitively priced and aimed at the value segment of the market. It requires a small blood sample of less than 3.5µL (3.5 microliters) and includes a 250 test memory, computer download capability, and a quick read time of 10 seconds.

      • The Advance Micro-draw, formerly know as the Hypoguard Advance Blood Glucose Monitoring System, uses a small sample size of 1.5µL (1.5 microliters) and provides results in 15 seconds.

      • The Select GT automatically stores up to 100 test results for easy record keeping and has a back-up color chart for visual confirmation.

      • The Supreme II automatically stores up to 100 test results for easy record keeping.

      • The Supreme Plus blood glucose meter has a large display screen and is whole blood referenced. The meter displays results in 30 to 60 seconds.

      Its URL is

      Added January 20, 2009:

    24. i-SENS Inc. of Seoul, South Korea, currently offers three blood glucose meters, the CareSens II and CareSens POP, which are just now becoming available in the U.S., and their newest meter, the CareSens N, which will be available soon. For more, please see my article at The URL for the company's English-language website is

      Revised: April 20, 2008:

    25. LG Electronics of Seoul, South Korea, has combined a blood glucose meter with a cell phone, the Diabetes (Health Care) phone KP8400. The KP8400 is available now in South Korea only for the equivalent of about US$380, according to InfoSync World. The company’s URL is

      Free Meters, Test Strips, and Lancets

      If you have good health insurance and live in one of the states that require health insurance providers to cover at least one blood glucose meter, you can get the meter, test strips, and lancets at little or no cost. Most states now require health insurance providers to cover diabetes supplies, equipment and self-management training. See

    26. LifeScan Inc., a Johnson & Johnson company headquartered in Milpitas, California, markets several different blood glucose meters in the United States. Its current meters are:

      • The OneTouch UltraMini Blood Glucose Meter has “No bells, no whistles, no complicated screens — just the number you want from our smallest meter,” LifeScan says. This small and simple meter gives results in 5 seconds and requires just a 1µL (1 microliter) drop of blood. In some other countries a similar LifeScan meter is known as the OneTouch UltraEasy. LifeScan's Horizon meter, intended for third tier markets, looks similar on the outside, but is less complex internally and uses a different strip.

      • The OneTouch Select meter is available exclusively for mail order customers. It requires a 1µL (1 microliter) drop of blood and tests in 5 seconds on either a finger or the arm. It has a data port that uses LifeScan software.

      • The OneTouch Ultra2 meter just requires a 1µL (1 microliter) drop of blood and tests in 5 seconds on either a finger or the arm. This meter is plasma-blood calibrated. It has a data port that uses LifeScan software.

      • The OneTouch UltraSmart is now available. It requires a 1µL (1 microliters) drop of blood and tests in 5 seconds on either a finger or the arm.

      • The OneTouch UltraLink Meter wirelessly sends test results to a MiniMed Paradigm insulin pump.

        Added Feb 15, 2012

      • The OneTouch VerioIQ shows blood glucose patters. My review is "LifeScan's New VerioIQ Meter."

      The URL for the U.S. company is
      and for LifeScan Canada it is

      Added April 27, 2007:

    27. A. Menarini Diagnostics, headquartered in Florence, Italy, offers its blood glucose meters in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, France, Germany, UK, Sweden, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, and Slovenia. The company makes Glucocard and GlucoMen meters. The URL is

      Added May 20, 2009:

    28. National Diagnostic Products in Sydney, Australia, offers four Betachek meters: Betachek Visual, Betachek DT, Betachek G5, and Betachek Glucoflex. But I have a question: Some of the photos on the company website are the same as I have seen on some American company website (I can't remember which). Does this mean that Betachek stole the photos or that it's connected to the American company? The URL is

      Added November 28, 2008:

    29. Necher Ind. Ltd. in Yangjiang, Guangdong, China, manufactures the EUkare Blood Glucose Meter and test strips. Except for an email message from the company's sales representative, I know nothing more. The URL is or (Chinese only) or (English).

      Added September 21, 2009:

    30. Neuero Engineering Inc. in Taiwan says that its "revolutionary and ingenious multiple tests enable our customers to have three tests on a single blood glucose test strip." The URL is

      Added October 12, 2007:

    31. Novabiomedical Corporation in Waltham, Massachusetts, develops and manufactures medical devices, and diagnostic equipment, specifically vitro diagnostics.

      Its Nova Max Blood Glucose Monitoring System has a 5-second test time, a 0.3 microliter sample size, and no coding. The URL is

      Added August 8, 2010:

    32. Omnis Health in Natick, Massachusetts, offers the Embrace Blood Glucose Monitoring System. The Embrace is a talking meter that requires no coding. The URL is

    33. Polymer Technology Systems Inc. in Indianapolis, Indiana, is a diabetic diagnostic manufacturing company focusing on the complete management of diabetes and its complications.

      • Its lead consumer product is called the CardioChek, a hand-held medical diagnostics system to monitor key health indicators including total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides. It no longer sells test strips to check LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, or ketones. The company is is now selling this meter exclusively through distributors, which offer it at widely differing prices from about $120 on up. Polymer Technology Systems no longer supports the BioScanner 2000 (formerly called the MTM BioScanner 1000), except for creatinine. The URL is

      Added Feb 15, 2012

    34. Telcare in Bethesda, Maryland, offers the Telcare BGM. This meter automatically sends your test results to a secure data base. The company's website is Telcare. You can also read my review, "Telcare: A Good Call for Reporting Blood Glucose."

    35. The Roche Group, based in Basel, Switzerland, which merged with Boehringer Mannheim Corporation in 1997, manufactures a wide range of blood glucose meters:

      • Accu-Chek Aviva. This new meter gives reliable results in five seconds and requires one of the smallest blood samples of any meter, just 0.6µL (0.6 microliters). Please see my review of this meter at

      • Accu-Chek Go. This new meter deliver your results in just 5 seconds and requires a small drop of blood—just 1.5µL (1.5 microliters). You can use it for alternative site testing. It has alarms that you can set and includes a data port for uploading results to your computer. This meter is not sold in the U.S. The URL is

      • Accu-Chek Compact. This is one of the newest members of the Accu-Chek family of meters. One of its major features is its Automated Drum Technology, which automates a strip-handling process with self-contained strips, calibrates the meter, and enables the test strips to be dispensed from a drum of 17 tests with a press of a button. In addition, it delivers results within 15 seconds and only requires 3.5µL (3.5 microliters) of capillary blood. Outside-meter dosing of blood samples assures compliance with stringent hygiene standards and helps minimize the possibility of human error. Other features, such as underdosing detection and built-in strip quality control, help assure maximum safety and efficacy. The meter also features an infrared data port that can download data into Accu-Chek data management systems, computers, and other data storage devices and, via modem, to health care providers. This meter is plasma-blood calibrated.

      • Accu-Chek Active. It requires only a 1µL (1 microliters) drop of blood and results appear in about five seconds. The alternative testing option means that you can test your blood sugar from your palm, forearm, upper arm, thigh, or calf. It has a data port.

      • Accu-Chek Complete. Its data port allows it to work with diabetes management software. This meter has eight programmable time blocks. An optional fax/modem that connects directly to the meter allows you to transfer blood glucose readings directly to your health care team. The Comfort Curve strips are plasma-calibrated and require only 4µL (4 microliters) of blood and test in 40 seconds. This meter uses sensor technology, which means that regular cleaning is not required.

      • Accu-Chek Advantage. Its data port allows it to work with diabetes management software. The Comfort Curve strips are plasma-calibrated and require only 4µL (4 microliters) of blood and test in 40 seconds. This meter uses sensor technology, which means that regular cleaning is not required.

      • Months ago the FDA approved an Accu-Chek Advantage Module for a Handspring Visor PDA. But now (February 2003) feedback from Roche Diagnosics sent to a correspondent of mine and forwarded to me says, "Due to recent developments within the Handspring Visor product line, the Advantage Module has been discontinued."

        Added February 14, 2007:

      • Accu-Chek Voicemate. This meter, designed for the sight-impaired, is no longer available from Roche, according to correspondence from the company.

        Added March 15, 2006:

      • Accu-Chek Compact Plus. This new meter includes a drum of 17 test strips and a Softclix Plus lancet device that can be detached. It requires a sample size of 1.5 microliters and gives test results in five seconds.

      The URL is

      Added March 31, 2005:

    36. TaiDoc Technology Corporation in Taipei, Taiwan, is making a lot of blood glucose monitoring systems, including the Achtung TD-4207, Clever Chek TD-4209, Clever Chek TD-4222. Apparently forthcoming are the TD-4101, TD-4102, TD-4103, TD-4106, TD-4107, TD-4109, TD-4110, TD-4205, and TD-4206. It also makes three systems that monitor both blood glucose and blood pressure: Clever Chek TD-3213, Clever Chek TD-3215, Clever Chek TD-3250. I don't think they are available in the U.S. yet, although at least one of these meters has FDA 510(k) approval. The URL is

      Updated November 10, 2009:

    37. Fred Wang of Tyson Bioresearch Inc. in HsinChu, Taiwan, writes me that they offer several different blood glucose meters. "Currently, we have six meters that are FDA approved as well as having the CE mark," he writes. "However, at the current time we are only offering two types in the U.S. They are the Ez Smart 168 and Smartchex (under private labeling). Both are highly effective, simply in design, and offered at a much lower price." The URL is

      Revised November 17, 2009:

    38. US Diagnostics Inc. in New York City has introduced five blood glucose meters:

      1. The Infinity Blood Glucose Monitoring System is the newest tool from US Diagnostics. The Infinity monitor reads the test strip and automatically sets the code providing easy, safe, quick, and comfortable testing in 5 seconds with a sample size of 0.5µL (0.5 microliters). It comes with a lifetime warranty.
      2. The Acura Blood Glucose Monitoring System. The meter automatically sets the code. It can use alternate sites to provide results in 5 seconds with a sample size of 0.5µL (0.5 microliters) and comes with a lifetime warranty.
      3. The Maxima Blood Glucose Monitoring System. This meter can use alternative sites to provide results in 5 seconds with a sample size of 0.5µL (0.5 microliters) and comes with a lifetime warranty.
      4. The EasyGluco Blood Glucose Monitoring System. This meter can use alternative sites to provide results in 9 seconds with a sample size of 1.5µL (1.5 microliters).
      5. The Control AST Blood Glucose Monitoring System. This meter can use either traditional or alternative sites to provide results in 5 seconds with a small sample size of 1µL (1 microliter).

      The URL is

      Other Resources

      • Diabetech Ltd. Co. in Dallas, Texas, has introduced the GlucoMON wireless device to provide critical patient data in real time to medical professionals. It is non-invasive and also alerts families of juvenile and geriatric patients of their glucose levels only seconds after they test, wherever they are. Although it is not a meter, it works with the LifeScan Ultra meter, and Future GlucoMON's will work with other medical devices, including pumps and the forthcoming continuous glucose sensors. Kevin L. McMahon, the founder and president, is the father of a child with type 1 diabetes. However, shipments of the GlucoMON are currently on hold. See The URL is

      • The Diabetes Action Network of the National Federation of the Blind publishes a valuable directory of products for people with diabetes, especially those who are blind. Blood glucose meter products that it lists and describes are in two sections, "Blood Glucose Meters with Voice Enunciation" and "Large Print (non-talking) Blood Glucose Monitors." The URL is

      • Apparently only one company still sells generic test strips. And that company does not sell its strips in the United States. Diagnostic Solutions in Irvine, California, provides Uni-Check 1, 2, and 3 test strips designed for use in meters currently offered by LifeScan and Bayer and Uni-Check Visual strips for visual interpretation without the use of a meter. These low-cost test strips are available in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The URL is A correspondent informs me that while the Diagnositic Solutions website says they don’t sell in the U.S., an online search found Uni-Check test strips are sold by several U.S. pharmacies, including OTC

        Up until about 2001 Can-Am Care, a subsidiary of Inverness Medical Inc., manufactured and sold Excel GE Blood Glucose Test Strips for the Glucometer Elite and Glucometer Elite XL Blood Glucose Meters. However, in 2001 Johnson & Johnson bought Inverness' diabetes business. Now, J&J does not mention Excel test strips on any of its Web sites.

      • Revised October 10, 2006:
        Kelly Close of Close Concerns Inc. in San Francisco, a consultancy devoted to diabetes and obesity research, tells me that on the basis of industry estimates worldwide sales of blood glucose meters were almost $5.9 billion in 2004. Roche Diagnostics leads with sales of about $2.3 billion. LifeScan/J&J is second with $1.7 billion. Together they continue to control two thirds of the blood glucose marketplace. Bayer with $800 million and Abbott Diabetes Care with $790 million are neck and neck for third place.

        Other estimates vary. The U.S. market for blood glucose meters was worth $252.8 million in the year ended March 31, 2002, according to the June 2002 issue of OTC Update, published by Nicholas Hall Periodicals. This is up from $224.4 million in 2001 and $195.0 million in 2000.

        But blood glucose strips are far more important. Sales in 2002 were $1,132.6 million. That's up from $1047.4 in 2001 and $971.1 million in 2000.

        During a Johnson and Johnson presentation in October 2006, Eric Milledge Company Group Chairman stated that JNJ's LifeScan unit was number 1 in U.S. test strip sales for the year through June 2006 holding 36 percent of the market. He said that Roche (Accu-Chek) was number 2 at 26 percent, followed by Abbott (FreeStyle) at 21 percent, and Bayer at 13 percent. He cited "IMS DDD." IMS Health in Fairfield, Connecticut, provides market intelligence to the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries.

      • What are the FDA's standards for meter accuracy? The answer might surprise you. See the "Meter Accuracy" section of my "Diabetes Update" newsletter number 39 at

      • "Glucose Meters & Diabetes Management" is an extensive part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Diabetes Web site. The URL is

      • Consumer Reports magazine tested 13 blood glucose meters for its August 2005 issue. The magazine rated these meters in terms of consistency, accuracy, and ease of use. Their 2001 review had defined consistency as the "ability to give similar readings on successive tests of the same blood sample" and accuracy as "how closely the readings agreed with standard lab results." This article says that consistency is "more important than accuracy because you can adapt to inaccurate readings as long as they are consistently high or low by the same amount." The magazine's panelists like the OneTouch UltraSmart and OneTouch Ultra the best. But they gave the same rank (very good) for consistency to these meters and six others: BD Logic, FreeStyle Flash, Accu-Chek Complete, Ascensia Contour, FreeStyle, and Accu-Chek Compact.

      • Ed Bryant has a valuable article for anyone who is visually impaired, "Talking Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems" in the Spring 1999 issue of Voice of the Diabetic, the Diabetes Action Network of the National Federation of the Blind. The URL is

      • Rebates and trade in allowances are available on most of these meters.

      • A Certified Diabetes Educator named Wanda Siu-Chan has a useful article about "Choosing the Meter That's Best for You" on-line in the diabetes area at The Daily Apple, where you need to register in order to read the article. The base URL is

      • An endocrinologist in my former home town of Santa Cruz, California, regularly has his patients take their blood glucose meters to his office and compare them with lab serum glucose tests taken by the lab at the same time (bearing in mind that some meters are calibrated for whole blood and others for plasma, which labs use). Dr. Larry C. Levin tells me that this has convinced him that no one model or brand is noticeably more inaccurate than another. Individual meters, however, often are inaccurate, and it is usually the older ones that are, he says. Therefore, he recommends that his patients change their meter every year. With a trade in, the cost is little or nothing.

      • The Children with Diabetes Web site evaluates blood glucose meters. See

      • American Diabetes Association also has extensive information on blood glucose meter features. SeeThe American Diabetes Association 1999 Resource Guide, a supplement to the December 1998 issue of Diabetes Forecast, pp. 48-61.

      • The "Meters FAQ" of the Diabetic mailing list has extensive information about most of the blood glucose meters. The URL is

      • There's a definite trend in the newest blood glucose meters and/or test strips to plasma calibration. While all meters take a whole-blood sample to calculate your blood glucose, some of the newer meters and/or test strips have been calibrated to provide the result as a plasma equivalent. Why add this confusing alternative? Because lab tests are expressed in plasma values. Plasma-calibrated meters and/or test strips make it easier for physicians and their staff to compare the results from your meter with results from the lab. A plasma-calibrated meter will report a reading about 8 to 12 percent higher than a whole-blood calibrated meter.

      • Diabetes Monitor has several useful Web pages about meters on this site:

      • "Improving Blood Glucose Monitoring for Diabetes" is an article about blood glucose meters on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration site at

      • "Review Criteria Assessment of Portable Blood Glucose Monitoring In Vitro Diagnostic Devices Using Glucose Oxidase, Dehydrogenase or Hexokinase Methodology" is a draft FDA Document on-line at

      • Stefano Fornaciari in Italy proposes to partner with some investors and/or companies to produce and to sell his proposed non-invasive glucose meter, on which he has been working since 1997. The URL is

    Forthcoming Meters

    1. New: January 7, 2011
      VeraLight (also spun off from InLight Solutions), developing the Scout system for diabetes screening, has approval to market in Canada, and has just received the CE mark for marketing in Europe.

      Updated: May 29, 2014
      VeraLight ​has been acquired by by a small company in Winnipeg, Canada, called Miraculins Inc.

    2. New: January 13, 2011:
      Mendor in Helsinki, Finland, has introduced an integrated blood glucose meter system combining the meter itself, 25 test strips, and a lancet as the Mendor Discreet. It is currently available in Europe and is awaiting FDA 501(K) clearance in the U.S. It returns a result in 5 second and requires only a very small drop of blood, 0.5 micro liters. The URL is

    3. New: January 5, 2006:
      Advanced BioSensors Inc. in Mentor, Ohio, is developing a continuous glucose monitoring device called the Messenger. It will be the first to continuously measure glucose in the dermis instead of the fatty, subcutaneous tissue. You can read the article "Toward Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring" by the company's president and founder, Albert P. Kretz, at The company doesn't yet have a website but owns the domain name Meanwhile, you can reach it by email at [email protected]

      Updated June 4, 2007:

    4. Agamatrix Inc. in Salem, New Hampshire, develops and manufactures blood glucose monitoring products. Its website has a teaser about "a number of direct applications" to continuous blood glucose monitoring. The URL is

    5. New: June 17, 2005:
      AiMedics Pty Ltd in Eveleigh, NSW, Australia, is a private company specializing in non-invasive detection of disease. Its HypoMon system will be a monitoring device used to non-invasively detect the onset of hypoglycemia in people with type 1 and insulin-dependant type 2 diabetes. The system will detect low blood glucose levels below 2.5 mmol/l (45 mg/dl) and provide an alarm system for the patient and/or care giver to prevent onset of hypoglycemia complications. The URL is

    6. Animas Corp. in Frazer, Pennsylvania, the manufacturer of the R1000 insulin pump, is developing a long-term, implantable, optical sensor, which will provide continuous and accurate monitoring of blood glucose levels. This sensor will be equipped with alarms to give warnings of impending hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Ultimately this sensor will be tied into an insulin infusion pump to provide closed-loop control of blood glucose levels. Based on spectroscopy, this sensor measures the near-infrared absorption of blood. The company believes that this sensor will be available commercially in 2003. The URL is

    7. Argose Inc. in Waltham, Massachusetts, was a medical research and development company whose principal focus was to develop a completely non-invasive glucose monitor for the detection and monitoring of glucose levels in both children and adults. That's what its Web site said, but the company is now out of business and its website is down.

    8. ArithMed GmbH in Dortmund, Germany, at one time had an English-language Web site promoting its "GluControl GC300, the world's smallest non-invasive blood glucose meter," which is intended for home use. Few details are available. For example, it said that the device is "based on an innovative method," without specifying the method. A press release on the site dated March 3, 2000, said the company was already in production and the device would be available in April 2000, but no details have been subsequently added. The URL was, but is no longer online.

    9. Belbiosens in Mozyr, Belarus, has invented a blood glucose meter that includes 16 test strips. The company has made a small number of them for testing and is now searching for partners for coproduction of the meters. The URL is

    10. New: Sept 7, 2010:
      Biosensors Inc. is developing a meter based on the innovate SEMP technique that will let you take your glucose readings non-invasively. The URL is

    11. Bioject Inc. in Portland, Oregon, used to say that its glucose monitoring system will continuously and precisely measures glucose levels on a 24-hour basis. The system was supposedly a patch-like sensor coupled with a smart card about the size of a credit card connected by radio waves that you can keep in your pocket. A company representative said that they were planning to hit the market in 2001, but the company Web site no longer mentions this product. The URL is

    12. Biocontrol Technology Inc. in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, (subsequently renamed BICO Inc.) once said that it "has developed the world's first non-invasive glucose monitor for diabetic patients." It's called the Diasensor 1000. It was approved for sale in Europe. The company said that it sold four Diasensor 1000's and that "the devices...sell for US $9,000." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration did not grant approval for sale in the United States. The company no longer has a website and is out of business. BICO has "no employees, no operations, and no assets, all of its prior businesses were gone, as were the subsidiaries through which its operations had been conducted," according to an SEC filing. The company issued 7,357,012,122 shares for a total investment of $738,750,778. Gone.

    13. Biopath Research Inc. is a private research and development company. Its primary goal is to finalize development of a non-invasive glucose monitoring device. Corporate Secretary Henry M. Lee wrote me several years ago that, "Our research to date has proven quite successful, and we are quite confident about the product development... We are currently developing our website." However, there is still no Biopath website.

    14. Biopeak Corporation in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, says that it is developing a revolutionary, patent pending, Fusion Spectroscopy Platform for accurate and non-invasive human physiology monitoring applications, including glucose monitoring. Fusion Sensor technology is pain-free, small, accurate and easy to use whether periodically or continuously without exorbitant costs. This platform technology will enable a wide array of products including physiology monitors for body hydration, body mass and fat indices, glucose concentration, oxygen saturation, cardiac analysis, and blood pressure. The URL is

      Updated February 12, 2010:

    15. Biosign Technologies Inc. in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, says that it is developing a non-invasive blood glucose monitor that it calls the UFIT. The company announced in a press release at that it had been assessed and certified as meeting the requirements of the ISO and EEC for automated wrist blood pressure and blood glucose monitors. This allows Biosign to add NON-INVASIVE blood glucose monitoring to its offerings in the European Union and other regions that recognize these certifications. However, they have published no data nor disclosed a technology that could reliably derive blood glucose measurements from blood pressure data. The company URL is

      New June 22, 2005:

    16. BioTex Inc. in Houston says that itis working toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. The URL is

      New September 10, 2011:

    17. C8 MediSensors Inc. in San Jose, California, says that its noninvasive continuous glucose monitor, the HG1-c, will be available later this year. The meter uses Raman spectroscopy technology. The URL is

      New June 10, 2005:

    18. Calisto Medical Inc. in Plano, Texas, says that it had successfully completedly a pre-clinical trial of a continuous and non-invasive meter, the Glucoband. The URL is

      New November 13, 2006

    19. Cascade Metrix in Indianapolis, Indiana, is currently developing a continuous blood glucose monitoring system for use in critical care settings. “Our proprietary technology combines the state-of-the-art in mid infrared sensing technology and microfluidic blood sampling,” writes Kislaya Kunjan, co-founder and chief technology officer. The URL is
      Cascade Metrix

      Revised March 27, 2006:

    20. Cell Robotics International Inc. in Albuquerque, New Mexico, markets its Lasette Plus for Home Use laser finger perforator. It is the first FDA-approved laser for home use.

      It draws blood painlessly and is completely portable, weighing less than 9 ounces and is about as big as a cell phone. It requires a prescription and costs $595.

      The Lasette is a laser lancing device with many benefits over a conventional lancet—less pain, less soreness, and quicker healing.

      The URL is

    21. Added December 8, 2006
      ChemImage Corporation in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has applied for a patent for a noninvasive blood glucose meter. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent application, "US20060276697A1: Non-invasive biochemical analysis," to ChemImage indicating that the company would like to measure glucose noninvasively. The company's website, which however doesn't seem to mention anything about this work, is

    22. Added February 12, 2010:
      Cnoga Inc.
      in Or Akiva, Israel, may or may not be developing a blood glucose meter. The only mention of a blood glucose monitor of the company's website is a "new line of non invasive medical devices incorporating NIBG (Non invasive blood glucose monitoring)" at and the company's URL is

      Update Nov 4, 2010:
      Cnoga has completed the development of its non-invasive blood glucose meter and has received CE clearance. Larry Susman, Cnoga's vice president of sales and marketing, wrote to me that Cnoga hopes to have FDA approval sometime during 2011. They will start supplying to the European market by early 2011.

    23. CIBA Vision in Atlanta, Georgia, the eye care unit of Novartis AG, may be developing contact lenses that not only correct vision but also painlessly measure blood glucose, according to a 2001 article that at one time was online at The article refers to a pilot study presented in June 2001 at the annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association in Philadephia. The CIBA Vision site, however, does not mention it.

      Update May 18, 2008:
      Novartis has now spun off this approach to a separate company, EyeSense (q.v.):

    24. Added February 7, 2007:
      Cybiocare in Quebec, Canada, says that it is developing the world's first optical hypoglycemia detector and that it is now in full prototype and testing stage. “The Cybiocare OHD is designed as a totally non-invasive way to help prevent hypoglycemia among the millions of people with diabetes today,” its website says. The URL is

    25. This site is down March 4, 2004:
      Diabetex International Corp. in Old Saybrook, Connecticut, is developing a non-invasive blood glucose meter using radio frequency based on prototypes from Solid State Farms Inc., which with it has an exclusive licensing agreement for its patented technology. Diabetex says the meter will be ready for FDA filing in mid-2002. Because the meter will not require ancillary supplies, operating costs will be low. However, Diabetex plans to charge $3,500 for each meter. The URL is

    26. Diametrics Medical Inc. in St. Paul, Minnesota, announced in an SEC filing January 14, 2005, that it too was working on a continous blood glucose monitor, but "in a hospital setting at the point-of-patient care." The company's URL — which is years out-of-date and doesn't say anything about its forthcoming continuous blood glucose monitor — is

      Updated May 4, 2006:

    27. Diramed LLC in Carroll, Ohio, is developing a painless, non-invasive instrument for accurately measuring key components in the human body including glucose. The company's URL is

      Updated December 11, 2007:

    28. Echo Therapeutics Inc. in Franklin, Massachusetts, has merged with Sontra Medical Corp., which was developing the Symphony Diabetes Management System for continuous glucose monitoring. The product consists of SonoPrep instrument, a glucose biosensor patch with RF transmitter, and a glucose meter. The URL is

      Updated May 18, 2008:

    29. EyeSense GmbH in Groostheim, Germany, is a spin-off of Novartis based on an ophthalmic diagnostics system which can measure glucose levels without sampling blood each time, solely via a non-invasive sensor technology. The URL is
    30. Fluent Biomedical Corp. in San Diego is an early development-stage company dedicated to creating the first class of practical non-invasive glucose monitoring technologies. Fluent is starting with spectroscopic techniques and signal analysis methods already well-demonstrated to predict in vivo blood glucose levels non-invasively and accurately and adding proprietary new nanotechnology-driven optical sources and newly enabled powerful calibration and error-checking methods to create compact, reliable and calibration-free systems. The Fluent approach plans to deliver the first clinically viable technologies for continuous non-invasive monitoring. The URL is

      Revised July 4, 2006:

    31. Fovi Optics Inc. in Santa Clara, California, has gone out of business, according to email from a member of the company's core management team. The URL is

      Added February 8, 2007:

    32. Freedom Meditech Inc. in San Diego and the University of Toledo in February 2007 announced the consummation of an exclusive, royalty bearing, worldwide license for the continued development and commercialization of a patent-pending non-invasive ocular glucose measurement technology for use by people with diabetes. The consumer ready product will be the size of a pair of binoculars and will work by shining a light beam onto the eye (without touching the eye) to produce real-time glucose information, which is displayed on the device. The aim is to provide an alternative to the current finger prick method of testing blood glucose and eliminate the pain and biohazard waste disposal aspects of current glucose measurement devices.

      Under the agreement, UT will provide Freedom Meditech with exclusive worldwide rights to the technology in exchange for financial consideration over time. The enabling proprietary technology is the product of over 10 years of invention by Dr. Brent Cameron, Professor of Bioengineering at UT.

      The press release is online at

      CEO Craig Misrach tells me that Freedom Meditech's website is coming. It will be at

    33. Futrex Inc. in Gaithersburg, Maryland, heavily promoted its "Dream Beam Analyzer," a small, portable, non-invasive blood glucose measurement instrument. It promised to be the holy grail of blood glucose testing for diabetes—if and when it becomes available. It's not here yet. In fact, its Web site doesn't even mention it any more. The URL is

      Update September 21, 2009:

    34. GlucoLight Corporation in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, failed to obtain a new round of funding, and the company has been shut down.

      See also

      Update June 18, 2009:

    35. Glucon Medical Ltd in Boulder, Colorado, was a start up company developing non-invasive glucose monitoring devices for people with diabetes. But the company no longer answers the phone either in Boulder or Israel (where it started) and its website is down.

    36. GlucoSense Inc., majority-owned by GEN3 Partners in Boston, says that it is currently developing a wearable blood glucose monitor that is a truly non-invasive device that will cause no skin damage and can therefore be used for continuous monitoring. The URL is

    37. Gluko MediTech AG, a subsidiary of SanguiBioTech AG, Witten, Germany, is developing a long-term implantable glucose sensor, which is designed to determine the glucose level in the interstitial fluid by means of an opto-electronic measuring device. The sensor is designed to remain inside the diabetic patient for a minimum of three years and to maintain smooth operation during that period. They expect to launch the product in 2003/2004. See

    38. Update September 21, 2009:
      Grove Instruments LLC, formerly VivaScan Corporation, in West Boylston, Massachusetts, says that it has developed a noninvasive blood glucose monitor. It gives results in less than 25 seconds. It uses patented near-infrared technology, determining blood glucose levels by shining a low-level laser beam through the patient's earlobe. A second prototype, also in development, shines light onto the pad of the finger. The URL is

    39. GluMetrics LLC in Irvine, California, is developing a novel intravascular glucose sensor for the management of intensive insulin therapy in the hospitalized patient. The glucose sensing system known as GluCath, combines a proven fiber optic platform with a novel fluorescent chemistry under license from the UC Regents. GluCath has to date demonstrated remarkable temporal tracking of significant glucose excursions in animals confirming its design criteria to provide continuous glycemic status in an intravascular device while optimizing accuracy in the hypo and euglycemic range. Extensive clinical studies are planned in the near future in both volunteers and hospitalized ICU patients.The URL is

    40. Updated December 11, 2007:
      GlySens Inc. in San Diego is currently developing a long term continuous glucose monitoring system. The system is comprised of two elements: a long-lived fully implanted sensor and an external monitor with a display. The URL is

      Updated September 21, 2009:

    41. Guided Therapeutics Inc., formerly SpectRx Inc. in Norcross, Georgia, at one time said that it "is developing a painless, bloodless, alternative for conventional finger stick personal blood glucose meters. The technology uses a proprietary method which is designed to painlessly create a tiny micropore in the outer, dead layer of skin through which interstitial fluid (ISF) is collected and measured for glucose. To prevent the sensation of pain, the micropore technique includes a self-regulating feature to insure that there is no damage to the viable tissues beneath the layer of dead skin cells." The company's URL is

    42. Added October 10, 2006
      HealthPia America in Palisades Park, New Jersey, says that it has developed the world's first all-in-one blood glucose meter and cell phone and service for managing diabetes remotely. Its blood glucose meter, the GlucoPack, can be fitted onto regular cell phones. The URL is

    43. Hitachi Ltd. in Tokyo announced in February 2004 the development of a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring device using its unique measuring technologies. The device is intended to compute blood glucose levels by using special sensors to detect physiological parameters related to the body's metabolism, such as thermal energy, oxygen supply, and blood flow. The company plans for the device to go on sale in 2005. The URL is

    44. Hypoguard USA Inc. in Edina, Minnesota, is developing several new meters, named the Dart, the Flight (or Arrow), and the Quiver, according to its 2001 annual report of December 2001 at See also, which also discusses the Marathon continuous meter, and

      "Development of the first of Hypoguard's proprietary biosensor based products, Dart, is now complete. Clinical trials of the product were recently conducted in the US and the results of the trials were satisfactory. The FDA has cleared the meter for marketing in the U.S.

      "Rapid progress has also been made on the development of Flight, the 100-test disposable glucose monitoring product, which again uses our proprietary biosensor. The product, which is a fully integrated unit, requires no handling of strips and no calibration prior to use. It is directed towards the growing population of Type II diabetics, who test less frequently, but represent the highest growth segment of the market. Fully operational prototypes of the device have now been produced and the next stage is design optimisation, which will be followed by clinical trials and submission of the product to the FDA. To date, this product has generated a high level of interest amongst potential partners, both in the retail sector and amongst the large global glucose monitoring companies." The Flight seems to have been renamed the Arrow. See

      "Development of the Quiver system, combining a re-usable meter utilising disposable cartridges, each of which contains 50 glucose monitoring strips, is also progressing well. Quiver is designed for use by diabetics who test frequently. The meter is a robust device with a high level of functionality and extensive feature set, incorporating a convenient cartridge system which slots into the unit. For the diabetic, this avoids the need to carry a separate pot of strips and the inconvenience of having to insert a new strip into the meter each time a test is carried out."

      A joint venture between Hypoguard and Elan Corporation is developing a minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring system called the Marathon.

    45. Infratec Inc. in Wilton, Connecticut, is developing a hand-held device that is inserted in the ear to measure blood glucose levels non-invasively. It isolates and measures blood glucose levels from the eardrum using the body's natural heat emission, or thermal radiation. The method and instrument are based on the discovery that natural mid-infrared body emissions change, depending on the glucose concentration of the tissue. It is simply placed in the ear, much like an ear thermometer, for about 10 seconds. No blood is drawn. The first published clinical study of this device appears in the December 2002 issue of Diabetes Care, pp. 2268-75. The full text of the article is on-line at

      Infratec doesn't have a website. But you can see also the University of Connecticut Health Center news release online at

    46. InLight Solutions Inc., formerly known as Rio Grande Medical Technologies Inc. in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently focusing on the development of a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring device. The company has had a strategic partnership with LifeScan since 1993. Rio Grande draws on the expertise of Sandia National Laboratories in spectroscopy and chemometrics (multivarient statistics applied to spectroscopy) through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The URL is

    47. Institut für Chemo- und Biosensorik in Münster, Germany, has developed a system called NIMOS, a non-invasive monitoring system for continuous glucose measurement. Sampling is achieved by continuous suction of interstitial tissue fluid through a very small blister, which is opened automatically. The URL is

    48. Integ Inc. in St. Paul, Minnesota, was developing the LifeGuideTM System, a bloodless glucose meter. In October 2000 Inverness Medical Technology Inc. in Waltham, Massachusetts, announced that it was acquiring Integ, and subsequently LifeScan acquired Inverness. The URL was, but no current information is available.

    49. Integrity Applications in Ashkelon, Israel, hopes to introduce the first, real non-invasive device, the GlucoTrack. They say that it will measure glucose levels with a high degree of accuracy and reliability. The device will be the first capable of both singular and continuous measurements. GlucoTrack will be the only device that uses different techniques simultaneously in order to increase reliability: ultrasound, conductivity, and heat capacity. It tests on the ear with an ear ring. The URL is

    50. International Diagnostic Technologies Inc. in Madison, Alabama, says it has "a breakthrough in technology that should provide the world's first easy-to-use, accurate, cost-effective, non-invasive glucose monitor." Its Photonic Molecular Probe™ employs near infrared (NIR) light but does not rely on linear absorption. "The crux of what we do," writes International Diagnostic Technologies President Frank L. Madarasz, "is in the preparation of the input beam, which involves multiple frequencies, our data acquisition, and a unique signal processing methodology, heretofore not employed in the physiological arena, based on conditional probabilities. All this is presently the subject of a pending patent." He says that the signal processing uses Bayesian statistics, which frankly didn't mean a thing to me until I looked it up at A long article there says in part that "Bayesian methods...provide alternatives [to classical statistical methods] that allow one to combine prior information about a population parameter with information contained in a sample to guide the statistical inference process. A prior probability distribution for a parameter of interest is specified first. Sample information is then obtained and combined through an application of Bayes's theorem to provide a posterior probability distribution for the parameter. The posterior distribution provides the basis for statistical inferences concerning the parameter...." The URL is

      Update June 5, 2008:

    51. Intuitity Medical in Sunnyvale, California, formerly Rosedale Medical in Princeton, New Jersey, "is developing products that will enhance blood glucose monitoring for diabetic patients. The URL is

      Updated June 18, 2008:

    52. Invictus Scientific Inc. in San Diego has now merged with Bionime Corporation (q.v.).

      Updated December 3, 2007:

    53. iSense Corp. in Wilsonville, Oregon, is dedicated to the development of a minimally-invasive continuous glucose sensor that it calls the iSense Flexible Micro-wire Sensor. The URL is

    54. Kumetrix Inc. in Union City, California, is developing a painless blood glucose monitoring system. The system consists of a hand-held, battery-powered, electronic monitor—about the size of an audio cassette tape—that accepts a cartridge loaded with up to 10 disposable sampling devices. Each disposable consists of the micro-needle and a receptacle into which the blood sample is drawn. To take a measurement, a patient loads the cartridge into the electronic monitor and simply presses the monitor against the skin. This action causes the micro-needle to penetrate the skin and draw a very small volume of blood. Kumetrix has entered into an agreement with Bayer Corp. to exclusive rights to further evaluate the Kumetrix silicon micro-needle technology for commercial application in diabetic blood glucose monitoring. The URL is and

    55. LighTouch Medical Inc. in New Hope, Pennsylvania, hopes to begin the FDA approval process by the end of 2002 and secure approval for a home use device that will be a safe, painless, non-invasive substitute for the finger-stick method. The company's patented technology relies on a combination of Raman based spectroscopy and a proprietary tissue modulation process to make direct blood glucose measurements. The URL is

    56. Luminous Medical in Carlsbad, California, is developing a continuous critical care monitor for hospital use. It will continuously measure glucose and several blood gas parameters by spectroscopically analyzing blood as it passes through a disposable optical flow cell. The system utilizes an established optical measurement platform licensed from InLight Solutions. The URL is

      Update: Luminous Medical has shut down (according to an email from the CEO, Rick Thompson)

    57. Added October 10, 2006
      MedApps Inc. in Scottsdale, Arizona, has developed a blood-glucose monitoring device called the D-PAL that will transmit blood glucose results via cell phone to the MedApps server. The company plans to begin a pilot study of this system soon. The URL is

    58. MicroSense International LLC in St. Louis, Missouri, terminated operations in 2003 and shut down, according to an article in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. It was developing a minimally invasive blood glucose meter, named "Pushita."

    59. MysticMD Inc. in Groton, Connecticut, is a research and development start-up company aimed at driving new product development and commercialization through selective partnering. Their approach is to extend their unique capabilities by leveraging the complementary capabilities of their partners. They are applying novel approaches and processes to develop and commercialize several new applications of carbon nanotube technology including electrochemical blood glucose monitoring test strips.

      In addition, MysticMD are licensing their two visual test strip products, Spartan and Millennium, to DIVITAL PPH, a start-up company based in Poland. The Spartan strip is a wipe strip-basically a substitute for the Roche Chemstrip bG visual test strip. Millennium is a new product category, the first no wipe color match test strip available on the market. Both strips are single-use, disposables that reliably report blood glucose readings in the range of 40 to 400 mg/dl. DIVITAL intend to manufacture and sell both strips in Poland and other countries in Eastern Europe. Contact them at 860-961-8052 and their URL is

      Added December 12, 2005

    60. Nexense Ltd. in Yavne, Israel, has filed a patent application to use photoacoustic spectroscopy to non-invasively measure glucose.

      Updated February 12, 2010

    61. NIR Diagnostics Inc. in Campbellville, Ontario, Canada (formerly known as CME Telemetrix Inc. in Waterloo, Ontario), has gone out of business, according to Earlier it said that its "primary research goal...remains the completion of GlucoNIR, a diagnostic device for non-invasive monitoring of glucose levels. " When the company was still known as CME Telemetrix it said that it was using near infrared light. The company's URL was

      Added November 9, 2005:

    62. The Non Invasive Blood Glucose Project in Kelvin, a suburb of Sandton, Gauteng, South Africa, will use visible light spectrometry, according to its website. The URL is

      Added December 11, 2007:

    63. Oculir Inc. has shut down, according to third-party information I have received.

    64. OptiScan Biomedical Corp. in Alameda, California, several years ago was reported to be developing a non-invasive blood glucose meter using mid-infrared radiation spectroscopy. See But the company appears to have shifted its emphasis away from non-invasive meters.

    65. OrSense Ltd., based in Rehovot, Israel, is dedicated to the pioneering and development of non-invasive monitors of blood analytes such as glucose, hemoglobin, and cholesterol. The company's innovative electro-optical technology performs non-invasive blood measurements by means of a finger probe, eliminating the need to draw blood by needle-stick. This involves stopping the flow of blood at the index finger by pressuring it gently, and then examining it with an optical probe using sophisticated algorithms. This company's first meter, the NBM-100, uses red near-infrared occlusion spectroscopy that also can provide continuous results. The URL is

      Added May 21, 2007:

    66. Osmolife A/S is a merger of Lifecare A/S of Bergen, Norway, and IQ Micro Inc. of West Palm Beach, Florida, according to Lifecare previously announced that it is developing the Sencell microsensor for injection under the skin to continuously transmit data wirelessly to a watch on the arm. The URL is

    67. Pelikan Technologies Inc. in Palo Alto, California, has stopped marketing. The company has lots of patents and many companies are interested in purchasing Pelikan. It was developing a highly integrated blood glucose monitoring system that is able to obtain a blood sample in a single step with reduced pain. The URL is

    68. Update March 15, 2005: The site is down, and I understand unofficially that the company is in trouble.
      Pendragon Medical Ltd. in Zurich, Switzerland, is developing a continuous sensing device, the Pendragon NI-CGMD, to provide frequent non-invasive blood glucose measurements. Pendragon's glucose sensor is based on radio wave impedance spectroscopy. The URL is

    69. Phoenix Biosystem in Livermore, California, is developing a painless and easy-to-use nanoliter-size body fluid (blood or interstitial fluid) sampling product for continuous glucose monitoring by people with diabetes using silicon-based MEMS technology. The company's Web site is still under construction, but you can read about their work at

    70. Pindi Products, based in Reno, Nevada, is focusing on developing a compact, pain-free non-invasive blood glucose monitor. How? "The patient will apply a film to their finger, insert their finger into the device, and in approximately 15 seconds, obtain an accurate reading of their blood glucose level." The URL is

      Added February 17, 2010:

    71. PositiveID Corporation in Delray Beach, Florida, bought the intellectual property rights and assets of Easy Check Medical Diagnostics LLC to expand its portfolio of non-invasive glucose-level testing products and diabetes management tools under development. Easy Check has two primary products under development: the Easy Check breath glucose detection system and the iGlucose wireless communication device. The Easy Check breath glucose test, currently under development, is a non-invasive glucose detection system that measures acetone levels in the exhaled breath. The URL is

    72. PowderChek Diagnostics in Freemont, California, is a spinoff of drug delivery firm PowderJect Pharmaceuticals PLC in Oxford, England. According to "Keeping Watch On Glucose" in IEEE Spectrum Online at, the company is working on a system that uses a high-pressure blast of fine particles to make holes in the skin, followed by a vacuum to extract interstitial fluid. The skin poration step is done with a handheld device that is currently used for needle-less injection of pharmaceuticals and vaccines.

    73. PreciSense in Hørsholm, Denmark, says that its PreciSense System utilizes Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, which is directly related to the concentration of glucose. The PreciSense meter will be non-invasive and continuous. The URL is

    74. QuestStar Medical Inc. in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, currently has announced a meter in development:

      • Focus. Scheduled to be available in 2005. Its data port allows it to work with diabetes software. It will take an 7µL (7 microliters) drop of blood and gives its result in 30-50 seconds. You are able to enter an activity marker for each test. The meter and its strips will be priced at the very low end of the range.

      The company's toll free phone number is (800) 525-6718 and the URL is

      Update September 21, 2009:

    75. Q Step Technologies Inc. once said on its website only that "Our technology will transform the way people monitor their blood sugar." Its phone number is (925) 867-2981, which happens to be in San Ramon, California. The company tells me that it is developing a non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on proprietary photonic technology. However, the website now has only a contact form. The URL is

      Added September 21, 2009:

    76. Rare Light Inc. says that it has invented and patented a new type of spectroscopy for non-invasive self-monitoring of blood glucose. The URL is

      Added February 13, 2010:

    77. Receptors LLC in Chaska, Minnesota, says that it working on a continuous non-invasive blood glucose system."An implantable glucose sensor is currently under development for the continuous, non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels," according to its website. The URL is

      Added July 19, 2006:

    78. Safe-com GmbH in Burg Lichtenfels, Germany, has developed the GlucoTel, the first completely wireless blood glucose meter. The company hopes to have it on the market in early 2007. The URL is

    79. Samsung Fine Chemicals Co. Ltd. in Korea at one time said on its Web sites that it has developed a hand-held device, named the "TouchTrak Pro 200," which measures blood glucose levels without a blood sample, the first such device to be commercialized in the world. Commercial production began in October 1998. The TouchTrak uses a non-invasive electromagnetic radiant ray and is for hospital use. Samsung also said the price of this meter is about $30,000 and that Samsung Fine Chemicals is also developing a personal use meter, the TouchTrak HC 300, expected to enter the market around the end of 1999. It will cost about $3,000, according to an e-mail message from D.H. Kim of the Medical Devices Team at Samsung Fine Chemicals sent to Jud McCraine and posted by him on on November 30, 1998. Samsung no longer has any information about its TouchTrak meters on-line. However, a German site has a picture of the TouchTrak Pro 200 at

    80. Sensors for Medicine and Science Inc. (S4MS) in Germantown, Maryland, says that it "S4MS is working on a sensor so small, it could be injected into the fatty layer below the skin to measure blood sugar levels for people with diabetes." The URL is

      Update September 21, 2009:

    81. Sensys Medical (formerly known as Instrumentation Metrics Inc.) formerly in Chandler, Arizona, has relocated to the U.K., according to This company says that it is developing a near-infrared blood glucose meter, which they call the GTS 1000. The URL is

    82. Sentek Group Inc. in Pittsburgh at one time said that its first product offering will be the Glucoview diagnostic contact lens for the diabetic glucose testing market. But it no longer appears to have a Web site.

      Added: November 11, 2006:

    83. Solianis Monitoring AG in Zürich, Switzerland, is a new Swiss Medical device company developing a non-invasive, continuous glucose monitoring device for people with diabetes. The sensor system being developed by Solianis uses impedance spectroscopy. The URL is,2,0,0,1,0

    84. Spire Corp. in Bedford, Massachusetts says that it is developing a non-invasive blood glucose meter using terahertz radiation. The company believes that terahertz radiation has wavelengths that are longer than visible and infrared, but shorter than microwaves, and may be the only radiation source that can separate glucose from other substances, according to The company URL is

      Added June 18, 2008:

    85. Standard Diagnostics Inc. in Kyonggi-do, Korea, manufactures the SD Check Gold blood glucose monitoring system. While it carried the CE mark (for sales in Europe), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration doesn't appear to have approved it yet. The URL is

    86. Synthetic Blood International in Kettering, Ohio, says that it "has developed an implantable glucose biosensor to monitor blood glucose without the need for finger sticks." The URL is

    87. Technical Chemicals & Products Inc. (TCPI) in Pompano Beach, Florida, said May 15, 2001, that it had stopped working on its TD Glucose Monitoring System. The company doesn't have the funds it needs to make the improvements needed in the system, which is completely non-invasive, non-toxic, and safe. TCPI's URL is

    88. TecMed Inc. in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is apparently out of business. It’s website,, has not been updated in several years.

    89. TheraSense Inc. in Alameda, California, is one of the pioneers in alternative site meters. Its FreeStyle and FreeStyle Tracker meters use the smallest drop of blood of any meter now on the market. But TheraSense is also developing a continuous blood glucose meter, the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitor. The TheraSense approach is somewhat similar to that of Medtronic Diabetes. Its Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device will utilize a disposable, miniaturized electrochemical sensor that can be easily inserted under the skin by the user using a spring-loaded insertion device. The sensor is inserted across the outer skin to monitor glucose levels every five minutes, with the ability to store results for future analysis. A major difference between the CGMD and CGMS is the size of the needle with the TheraSense needle at less than 10 percent the length of Medtronic Diabetes's. TheraSense designed its system to measure interstitial fluid. This requires a needle only long enough to cross the outer layer of skin and makes the needle essentially pain-free. One hurdle faced by the company is making the glucose readings accurate using such a small sample size. TheraSense submitted a Premarket Approval application (PMA) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitor in late 2003. The company's announcement says that the FreeStyle Navigator is a continuous glucose monitor designed to replace traditional in vitro glucose testing by providing users with real time glucose data, hypo- and hyperglycemic alarms and trend analysis. Navigator utilizes TheraSense's patented Wired Enzyme technology and is designed to measure glucose levels in the patient's interstitial fluid every sixty seconds and transmit the results to a wireless pager-sized receiver that may be worn on a belt or carried in a pocket or purse. Its Web site deals with this future product at

    90. VeraLight Inc. in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is an independent spinout of InLight Solutions to focus on a comprehensive approach to non-invasive diabetes screening. VeraLight has developed the Scout instrument employing fluorescence spectroscopy to non-invasively measure advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in the skin of a subject's forearm. The concentration of AGEs in the skin is an excellent indicator of cumulative hyperglycemic exposure and is highly correlated with the development of diabetes. The URL is

    91. Visionary Medical Products Corporation in Reno, Nevada, with a marketing office in Beverly Hills, California, at one time said that it was developing a non-invasive blood glucose meter that reads optical characteristics of the eye, rather than blood samples taken from the user. But the company reportedly is out of business. It still maintains a place holding website at

    92. Visual Pathways Inc. in Prescott, Arizona, is designing and developing the GlucoScope monitor, which is intended to be a portable, non-invasive, hand-held device. People with diabetes will be able to look into something like a small pair of binoculars and activate it with the press of a button. In a few seconds your blood glucose concentration will be displayed. The GlucoScope monitor is currently in the research and development stage and U.S. and international patents are pending. The URL is

      Revised March 2, 2006:

    93. VivoMedical Inc. (formerly MedOptix Inc.) in Cupertino, California, is developing a unique non-invasive glucose-monitoring technology based on glucose specific (non-optical) measurement of glucose present on the skin surface. A single-use disposable skin patch will measure glucose in the sweat. It is a surrogate for glucose in the blood, in a similar way that glucose in interstitial fluid is.

      People with type 1 or type 2 diabetes would simply apply a small dermal patch to the skin surface, wait a few moments, take a glucose reading with a cell phone cell sized reader, and dispose of the blood-free patch. The company is currently conducting studies on adult subjects in California. The URL is

      Added January 31, 2006:

    94. Zyvex Corporation in Richardson, Texas, and Diabetech LP in Dallas are collaborating in the development of a continuous blood glucose monitor. The system has three main components: A very small implanted glucose sensor, a dual-mode wireless handheld patient device, and automated connections to the GlucoDYNAMIX Diabetes Intervention System for real-time remote patient monitoring and intervention.

    Other Resources

    A1C Meters and Kits

    • A1C Meters

        Updated February 13, 2010:
      1. Bayer Diagnostic Care in Sunnyvale, California, now offers the A1CNow directly to people with diabetes with packs of two cartridges. The URL is

      2. Quotient Diagnostics in London, England, is developing a low-cost instrument and cartridge that will permit A1C testing at full standards of laboratory precision and accuracy within the scope of a single clinic visit. While initially the company is concentrating on rapid, easy, and inexpensive A1C testing at the point of care, a company representative advises me that the technology is simple enough to adapt for home use. Although at first the company is focusing on A1C, they intend to add fructosamine testing and possibly others such as microalbumin. The URL is

      Revised November 3, 2008:
    • A1C Kits

      Five companies now offer test kits that allow FDA-approved at-home testing of A1C (SpectRx has discontinued its SimpleChoice A1C test kit). You generally send in the sample and get the results back in the mail.

      1. Heritage Labs International LLC in Olathe, Kansas, offers the "Appraise Diabetes A1c Test" kit. We can take the test at home, then mail it to Heritage Labs. We can request to have the results delivered online via a secure website or through the mail. Processing can take as few as three days. The $19.95 FDA-approved kit is available at Wal-Mart under the Reli-On A1c Test brand name and at Rite-Aid drugstores under the Appraise brand name. The URL is

      2. Diabetech in Dallas offers the mail-in HomeCheck A1c for $29.95 plus $5.39 shipping and handling. The URL is

      3. Diabetes Technologies Inc. in Thomasville, Georgia, offers the Accu-Base Hemoglobin A1C Sample Collection Kit for $21.95 plus $3.85 shipping. It is available either over-the-counter or by prescription.The URL is

      4. FlexSite Diagnostics Inc. in Palm City, Florida, offers the A1C At Home collection kit. FlexSite's kit uses a filter paper process. One test is currently (June 24, 2006) on sale for $9.95. The URL is either and

    Microalbumin Kits

    Elevated levels of urinary albumin is also known as microalbumin. Elevated albumin is an early sign of possible renal (kidney) disease.
    • Revised March 2, 2005:
      Diabetes Technologies Inc. in Thomasville, Georgia, offers the AccuBase µAlb (microalbumin) urinary albumin screening kit for $21.95. The URL is

    • FlexSite Diagnostics Inc. in Palm City, Florida, offers the Kidney Screen At Home, a urine sample collection kit for mail-in microalbumin laboratory testing. One test is $24.95 plus $3.95 for shipping and handling. The URL is

    GlycoMark: 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG)

    This test of circulating levels of 1,5-anhydroglucitol zeros in on your blood glucose spikes after you eat.
    • Revised July 14, 2006:
      The BioMarker Group in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, introduced the 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) test in the United States as the GlycoMark. The URL is

    Glycated Albumin Test

    Albumin is a serum protein in the blood that can be measured with precision and has a turnover or replacement time of 2 to 3 weeks.
    • Revised July 14, 2006:
      Epinex Diagnostics Inc. in Irvine, California, is developing a rapid test for glycated albumin, the G1A Rapid Diabetes Monitoring Index Test, that utilizes disposable test strips and a matched instrument for reading the result. The period of measurement is 1 month, similar to that of fructosamine, which is 2 to 3 weeks, and less than that of A1C, which is 2 to 3 months. The URL is

    Other Resources

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